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. ( 2007 ). Should a quality sub-brand be located before or after the parent brand? An application of composite concept theory . Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science , 35 ( 2 ), 184 – 196 . 10.1007/s11747

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variables (Cronbach's α = 0.897) to generate one composite variable, indicating participant likelihood of using ayahuasca over other hallucinogens in the future. Thus, this variable served as an index of the magnitude of intentions to use ayahuasca over

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Opioid Withdrawal Scale and the Addiction Severity Index Composite scores. One month after treatment, 15 participants (50%) reported no opioid use, followed by varying results in reported opioid use in the months to follow: 10 participants (33%) after

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address the study aim. First, we developed a new composite index to assess the whole range of CSBD symptoms. This index relied on three previously validated scales for the assessment of CSBD: the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI, Reid, Garos

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Christoph Randler, Lucia Wolfgang, Katharina Matt, Eda Demirhan, Mehmet Barış Horzum, and Şenol Beşoluk

adolescents (176 boys, 165 girls, and 1 not indicated). The SAPS, Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), and habitual sleep–wake variables were collected from January to March 2015 in three secondary schools in southwest Germany. Study 2 was conducted with 208

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sina Zadra, Gallus Bischof, Bettina Besser, Anja Bischof, Christian Meyer, Ulrich John, and Hans-Jürgen Rumpf

proposed for IGD more broadly adapted to general Internet use, a personal diagnostic interview was used. This fully structured interview was based on the principles and structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI; Wittchen, 1994

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Elisabeth Franc, Yasser Khazaal, Katarzyna Jasiowka, Thibault Lepers, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli, and Stéphane Rothen

Bentler ( 1999 ). The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using the Cronbach’s α coefficient ( Cronbach & Meehl, 1985 ) and composite reliability (CR), which are measures of internal consistency. In order to assess convergent validity

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Edward B. McNeil, Nopporn Tantirangsee, Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon, and Thai National Mental Health Survey Team

interviewers who were mental health workers in each region. The paper-and-pencil interviewing version of the WHO World Mental Health Initiative version 3.0 of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) ( Kessler & Ustun, 2004 ; World Health

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Objectives

The international distribution and commodification of ayahuasca has created virtual communicative realms in the Internet in which members intensively exchange personal narratives, advertisements, and beliefs about ayahuasca and its reputed native background. Common consumption standards and beliefs about ayahuasca have developed among western ayahuasca drinkers who are often only loosely connected to the local practice of ayahuasca-shamanism in regions of the upper Amazonas that are not yet influenced by ayahuasca tourism. Those new standards of the ayahuasca tourism are reflected in the Internet. Motivation and expectation of interested ayahuasca tourists gets shaped in Internet forums. Previous studies about the motivation of western ayahuasca drinkers have mainly used heuristic qualitative methods. This study characterizes ayahuasca Internet activists and examines statistically their motivational structure to drink ayahuasca.

Methods

Using online data collection and quantitative analysis methods, 40 participants were studied who were active in closed Facebook groups about ayahuasca in the year 2015.

Results

The average active members of ayahuasca Facebook groups in this sample seem to be 28–50 years old (±1 SD), higher education degree holders, preexperienced with other psychedelic drugs and other psychospiritual methods, preexperienced with ayahuasca and motivated to drink again, and tend toward the intake within organized events such as shamanic healing ceremonies and retreat seminars. The results suggest that the motivation of Internet activists for ayahuasca consists in majority of four main elements: self-exploration, spiritual purposes, physical health issues, and sensation seeking. Self-exploration and spiritual purposes appear to be the main reasons for drinking ayahuasca. Physical health issues and sensation seeking are minor reasons among this subgroup of western ayahuasca drinkers but may play a larger role in some participants.

Conclusions

The motivation of members of social ayahuasca networks in the Internet seems not to be monodimensional but a composite of different aspects of which a subconglomerate of psychospiritual reasons and individual self-development seems to be the most dominant. The findings support motivational differences to local ayahuasca shaman clients in the upper Amazonas region that have been previously described in the ethnologic literature.

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had completed all items on the ATGS across both waves. Items that represent positive attitudes were reverse-coded and then a composite score was computed by adding up scores on the 14 items ( Orford et al., 2009 ) and then dividing this by 14. Higher

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