The mechanochemical solid-state adsorption of the cationic dye crystal violet (CV) by montmorillonite was investigated by XRD and simultaneous DTA-TG. Solid CV was ground with the clay for 5 min and four different varieties of CV mechanochemically treated clay were investigated. X-ray and DTA data were compared with those of CV-montmorillonite obtained from an aqueous suspension. X-ray and DTA studies of a ground mixture and a ground mixture heated at 110°C suggest that the mechanochemical adsorption of organic cations takes place on the external surfaces of the clay. The study of a ground mixture washed with water, and washed with water and acetone reveal that water is essential for the penetration of CV into the interlayer space.
Adsorption of erythrosin-B (EB) and fast green (FG) to a non-charged organosmectite based on crystal violet adsorbed up to 100% of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) was tested. Adsorption isotherms of EB and FG were prepared at 3, 24 and 50C. All isotherms are of H-type reaching loads of approximately up to 20% of the original CEC of the crude montmorillonite (up to 0.15 and 0.10 mol dye kg–1 clay for EB and FG, respectively). Adsorption decreases with temperature, indicating an exothermic process. Enthalpy was evaluated using van’t Hoff equation, yielding approximately –20 kJ mol–1 for both dyes.
An isotopic dilution method for the determination of traces of molybdenum has been developed. The method consists of the complexation Mo(V)-SCN with substoichiometric quantities of crystal violet, and its subsequent extraction into chloroform. This procedure was successfully tested for the determination of molybdenum in the range of 0.5 to 20 g.
Aqueous solution of crystal violet has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as a gamma-ray chemical dosimeter. The response of the chemical dosimetric system has also been investigated under different environmental conditions, such as light and temperature. In the present study the response has been measured at two wavelengths; 588 nm (λmax of the irradiated solution) and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter was linear in the dose range of 50–550 Gy at pH 5.6 when absorption measurements were made at 588 and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter during post-irradiation storage at room temperature in dark showed slight decrease in absorbance at 588 and 510 nm but the response was almost stable at 460 nm. For higher doses, the change in the response was greater as compared to the low doses. Post-irradiation stability during diffused sunlight showed significant decrease in the response for higher dose at 588 and 510 nm and slower decrease in the response for lower dose at the above mentioned wavelengths. However the response was almost stable up to 97 days at 460 nm for higher and lower doses. At 4 °C, the decrease in the absorbance was slower at 588 and 510 nm while the response was almost constant at 460 nm. At higher temperatures, such as 40 °C, the decrease in the absorbance was greater at 588 and 510 nm while at 460 nm the absorbance was almost constant for about 3 months.
A simple and accurate analytical procedure is proposed for determination of l -ascorbic acid after chromatographic separation. Optimum conditions for TLC separation of l -ascorbic acid were established. l -Ascorbic acid was detected by UV at λ = 254 nm. Spectrophotometric quantification was by means of a sensitive and simple method based on oxidation of leuco crystal violet to crystal violet. The absorbance of the crystal violet dye formed was measured at λ = 588 nm. The procedure was successfully used for determination of l -ascorbic acid in complex pharmaceuticals and in pepper juice samples. The results obtained were compared with those obtained by use of the Polish standard method.
A very sensitive extraction spectrophotometric method for the analysis of uranium based on the extraction of a uranium—benzoate—crystal violet complex by a mixture of xylene and benzene is described. The absorbance maximum is at 606 nm and molar absorptivity is 4.28·104 l·mol−1·cm−1. The interference due to a number of anions and cations studied without any pre-extraction was found to be within permissible limits. The method has been used for determining uranium in a synthetic solution, i.e., uranium in the presence of various other ions. The interference due to some cations was eliminated by the use of a masking agent (boric acid).
Metachromasy in clay mineral systems
Spectrophotometric and calorimetric study of the adsorption of crystal-violet and ethyl violet by Na-montmorillonit and by Na-kaolinite
Adsorption of the metachromic (colour depends on concentration) cationic dyes crystal violet (CV) and ethyl violet (EV) by Na-kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite has been studied by visible spectroscopy and titration calorimetry. In the kaolinite system, metachromasy stems from association of the dye cations on the external surface of the clay. Enthalpies of adsorption at small dye/clay ratios are −3.5 and −3.8 kJ/mol for CV and EV, respectively. In the montmorillonite system, which has been studied more thoroughly, metachromasy stems from theπ electron interactions between the dyes and the oxygen plane of the alumino-silicate. Enthalpies of adsorption (more exothermic than for kaolinite) depend on the dye/clay ratio in ways that are consistent with the spectra and the derived picture of dye/clay interactions.
600 °C, suggesting that the dye was located on the external surfaces of the clay [ 45 ]. MONT complex of the cationic dye crystal violet (CV) was obtained from an aqueous system [ 38 ] and by a dry mechanochemical adsorption [ 46 ]. The former