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Vegetables are the major source of dietary nitrate, with wide variations in nitrate content. The presence of nitrate in vegetables is often associated with harmful effects on human health, i.e. with toxic effects of methaemoglobinaemia and the possibility of causing an endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. However, it is also associated with beneficial health effects, since nitrate represent an important alternative pathway to bioactive NO and its important physiological roles in vascular and immune function. In this review the concentrations of nitrate in different vegetables from different countries are given. Furthermore, the reasons for the different contents of nitrate in vegetables, the daily intakes and comparisons to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values, legislation, metabolism and toxicology of nitrate are described as well as harmful and beneficial effects of nitrate on human health.

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completely safe. More recent studies showed that coumarin is not a genotoxic carcinogen, so that a certain limited daily intake may be considered acceptable ( EFSA, 2004 ; Abraham et al., 2010 ). In that context, tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg of

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health risk assessment For assessment of potential human health risks associated with oral intake of antibiotic residues through honey, estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were compared with the already established ADIs for all detected antibiotics to

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Poličnik
,
D. Pokorn
,
D. Kulnik
,
D. Mičetić-Turk
, and
C. Hlastan-Ribič

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy and dietary intake of pre-school children (PSC) in Central Slovenia.A total of 129 PSC, average age 4.2 years, were included. The intake was assessed with the use of three-day weighed food records.The average daily energy intake of PSC was 5881.0±1394.2 kJ (1405.2 kcal). The average estimated daily intakes of macronutrients were: protein 13.9%E, fats 28.8%E and carbohydrates 57.1%E. The average daily intake of vitamins were: A 0.2±0.2 mg, E 11.5±3.8 mg, B1 0.9±1.0 mg, B2 1.0±0.2 mg, B6 1.2±0.4 mg, D 1.1±0.7 μg, C 104.5±46.2 mg, folates 176.4±63.1 μg and minerals: potassium 2276.4±762.4 mg, sodium 1951.4±583.0 mg, phosphorous 910.8±260.0 mg, zinc 7.3±2.1 mg, iodine 104.0±32.9 μg, calcium 580.1±170.6 mg, magnesium 249.6±91.2 mg in iron 9.1±3.4 mg.The average daily energy intake and average estimated daily intake of macronutrients of PSC were comparable to recommendations. We found low average estimated daily intake of vitamin D, folates and relative high intake of sodium in PSC diet.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Massányi
,
N. Lukáč
,
V. Uhrín
,
R. Toman
,
J. Pivko
,
J. Rafay
,
Zs. Forgács
, and
Z. Somosy

Seifert, M., Anke, M. (1999) Daily intake of cadmium in Germany in 1996 determined with the duplicate portion technique. J. Trace Microprobe Techniques 17 , 101–109. Anke M. Daily

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The fourth countrywide nutrition survey was initiated and co-ordinated by the Hungarian Food Safety Office jointly to the yearly Household Budget Survey of Hungarian Central Statistical Office in 2009. The dietary assessment was performed by trained interviewers and skilled dieticians using a complex questionnaire system, containing three-day diary, short food frequency questionnaire and questions on taking of dietary supplements and on prevalence of food allergy. The data records were processed and the questionnaires were validated, the results obtained on the micronutrient intakes of the adult population are shown in this article. From fat soluble vitamins, the average daily intakes of vitamins A and D were lower than the national recommendations in case of both genders, meaning low intake for around 60% (in case of retinol) and 80–90% (in case of calciferols) of adults. The intakes of some water soluble vitamins belonging to B group, vitamin C and folates were low as well. Regarding the macroelements, the most important health problem on population level is the extremely high sodium load of the inhabitants, combined with unfavourable sodium/potassium ratio. The average daily calcium intake of every age and gender group was far below the recommended value. The average daily intake of iron was low for the 50% of adult females. The article also provides data on frequency of food supplement taking habits of inhabitants and of self-reported food allergy.

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All boarding school provisions within the Slovak Republic are due to prepare meals under the guidance of the Ministry of Health that monitors recommended daily intakes of individual foods and dietary allowances of nutrients through scientific meetings. Calculations based on a nutrition model of a boarding school in four months were done to estimate the mean dietary intake of nitrates and nitrites, industrially added to foodstuffs, by children aged 7 to 10 years. Following recognised methodology of the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission, it was assumed that nitrates and nitrites are used in the widest possible range of foods and at their maximum permitted levels, resulting in overestimation of intake values. The mean daily exposure of consumers with the lowest (21 kg) and the mean (26.5 kg) body mass to nitrates ranged from 0.6 to 6.7% and from 0.5 to 5.3% of their acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively. For the same consumers, the mean daily exposure to nitrites ranged from 0 to 13.0% and from 0 to 10.3% ADI. No significant seasonal differences were obvious. The results indicated that the above-mentioned group of children is sufficiently protected from hazard of nitrates and nitrites in food.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
K. Jurica
,
I. Brčić Karačonji
,
D. Lasić
,
D. Vukić Lušić
,
S. Anić Jurica
, and
D. Lušić

Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that, due to their lipophilicity, migrate more readily into beverages with higher ethanol content. The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of phthalates in samples during the plum spirit production and in the final product, plum spirit manufactured by registered producers from five European countries, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A decreasing trend of mean values was observed for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the distillation process went on. Levels of benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) increased in the distillation phase compared to concentrations in the preceding phases. In commercial plum spirits, DEHP and DiBP were detected in the highest concentrations. Results also indicated that a moderate daily consumption of plum spirit does not pose a health risk regarding the Tolerable Daily Intake of BBP, DEHP, and DBP

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Artificial sweeteners were introduced in therapy as sugar substitutes for diabetic patients. Nowadays these substances are widely used for sugar substitution in low calorie drinks and sweets. Most commonly used products to date are saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, and acesulfam; maximum accepted daily intakes are stated for each one.A simple reverse phase (RP18) HPLC-UV method with direct detection (196 nm) was developed by us in order to measure the concentrations of the three sweeteners. No sample preparation is required, other than dilution. Limits of detection are 12 mg l−1, 0.5 mg l−1 and lower than 0.25 mg l−1 for cyclamate, aspartame and saccharine, respectively. Concentrations ranged between 113.14–280.07 mg l−1 in the case of cyclamate, 17.96–50.94 mg l-1 for saccharine, and 9.94–296.82 mg l−1 for aspartame.

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An investigation on the quality characteristics of wheat bread enriched with seeds of high-oleic sunflower is reported which included important parameters that affect its nutritional quality (chemical composition, fatty acid composition: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and linolenic acid, tocopherol content: α-, β-, γ-, δ-content of essential microelement selenium) and its sensory quality. The study also includes the assessment of a persistent pollutant, benzo[a]pyrene. The objective of the study was to determine and compare the concentrations of nutrients and contaminants of the control and enriched wheat bread in order to assess the benefits and potential risks of regular consumption of these products. It was found that bread enriched with seeds of high-oleic sunflower would significantly improve the daily intake of fat, fibre, selenium, α-tocopherol and linolenic acid. Regular consumption of a daily portion of such bread (300 g) would not incur significantly increased health risk from contaminant.

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