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Abstract  

The daily intake of uranium (238U) by an urban Indian adult population was estimated by the analysis of a duplicate diet, drinking water, and air samples using neutron activation and radio-chemical separation. The uranium intake through food is 0.55 g which is much larger than that from drinking water and air, at 0.09 and 0.01 g, respectively. The total daily dietary intake of uranium, calculated from the concentrations measured in the individual food ingredients and their daily consumption (based on the national survey), is found to be 2.2 g which is a factor of 3.5 higher than that based on a duplicate urban diet. The maximum contribution to the daily intake is found to be from cereals. The lower intake by the urban population is most likely due to their lower food consumption.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Al-Masri
,
H. Mukallati
,
A. Al-Hamwi
,
H. Khalili
,
M. Hassan
,
H. Assaf
,
Y. Amin
, and
A. Nashawati

Abstract  

More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels of 210Po being observed in fish, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and flowers. The daily intakes of the radionuclides studied have been evaluated. Relatively high values, in comparison with some countries, were found for 210Po (1.9 Bq/day). This is due to high content of 210Po in wheat (2.3 Bq/kg) consumed by Syrians, the daily consumption of wheat by Syrians is about 526 g. In addition, natural and artificial radionuclides in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milk were collected from the local market and their radioactivity analyzed. 210Po activity concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/kg dry wt. in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/kg dry wt. Other radionuclide concentrations were below the limit of detection of 3 Bq/kg dry wt. and 4 Bq/kg dry wt. for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively, while uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 µg/kg dry wt. in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 µg/kg dry wt. in other food samples.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
S. Ko
,
K. Shiraishi
,
S. K. Sahoo
,
K. Ayama
,
Y. Muramatsu
,
I. P. Los
,
V. N. Korzun
,
N. Y. Tsigankov
, and
P. V. Zamostyan

Summary  

The concentration of stable iodine and bromine in Ukrainian milk has been determined in relation to the effect of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The geometric mean of iodine and bromine concentration was 31.0mg/kg and 2.57 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with Japanese milk, it was statistically lower. Bromine concentrations in Ukrainian and Japanese milk were not significantly different. Contribution of milk to daily intake of iodine and bromine in Ukrainian adults has been estimated to 88% and 94%.

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Abstract  

Diet samples were collected by a duplicate portion study of Japanese adults in two districts, a newly-rising town and an established seaside village, of Ishikawa Prefecture, which faces the Sea of Japan. Uranium concentrations in a total of 80 diet samples were determined by -spectrometry after chemical separation. No marked differences between the two districts were found regarding characteristics of food consumption in thirteen categories and in daily intake of238U per person. The daily intake of238U per person ranged from 1.1 to 40 mBq with a geometric mean value of 9.6±2.1 mBq. The234U/238U activity ratios ranged from 0.7–1.5, with most being from 1.0–1.2. The internal dose estimation system (IDES) was completed with Japanese physical parameters and other parameters of ICRP Publication 30, and then the annaul effective dose equivalent was estimated as 3·10–7 Sv for238U in a Japanese adult.

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Abstract  

Selenium daily intake was determined for two small groups of the Portuguese population, based on the analysis of duplicate diet portions. The total amount of food ingested during a day was collected for 18 workers of the Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN-Sacavém) and for 6 females of Reguengos de Monsaraz, a small town in the south-eastern hinterland. The average selenium daily intake was 43 ± 20 and 32 ± 13 μg per person, respectively, both lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 55 μg day−1. Selenium in diet samples was determined by replicate sample neutron activation analysis (RSINAA). The method was considered accurate for the selenium determination.

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Abstract  

A simple method employing neutron activation and radiochemical separation was developed for simultaneous determination of the concentrations of232Th(Th) and238U(U) in biological materials. Using this method, it is possible to detect 0.05 and 0.2 ng of Th and U, respectively, in the samples. This method was applied to determine the daily dietary intake of these two nuclides by the population living in the high background areas of India (Monazite area), where the soil contains very high levels of these two nuclides. The comparison of the daily intakes by the population living in high and normal background areas showed significantly higher intake of these two nuclides by the high background population.

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Abstract  

Fifty representative foods sampled Australia-wide from each of the State capitals were analysed for manganese by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Calculated daily intake of manganese for Australian diets was compared with recommendations by US authorities for the safe and adequate dietary intake of this essential trace element. The contribution of tea to adult daily intakes was determined.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
K. Shiraishi
,
S. Ko
,
T. Ban-nai
,
H. Arae
,
K. Ayama
,
P. Zamostyan
,
N. Tsigankov
,
I. Los
, and
V. Korzun

Abstract  

Daily intakes of 134Cs and 137Cs in Ukrainians were estimated in relation to the health effects on habitants after the Chernobyl accident. Two hundred and sixty-eight diet samples were collected from 25 oblasts (regions) using a duplicate portion method. For Ukrainians, the range and median daily intakes of 137Cs were 0.53–571 and 8.8 Bq per person, respectively. Intakes of 134Cs were also detected in highly 137Cs contaminated areas. Daily intakes of 134Cs were in the range of not detected to 3.6 Bq per person. Using the highest radiocesium intakes, annual effective doses for 134Cs and 137Cs were estimated to be 2.5·10−2 and 2.7 mSv, respectively.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
K. Shiraishi
,
Y. Muramatsu
,
I. Los
,
V. Korzun
,
N. Tsigankov
, and
P. Zamostyan

Abstract  

Total diet samples for Ukrainians and Japanese were collected by duplicate portion studies in relation to the Chernobyl accident. Stable iodine and bromine in the diet samples were determined by using ICP-MS after chemical separation. Daily intakes of iodine for Ukrainians and Japanese were found to be 110±104 and 1770±1610 μg per person per day, respectively. Daily intakes of Br were as follows: Ukrainians 3.47±2.12 mg; Japanese 11.4±2.4 mg. Daily iodine intake in Ukrainians was lower than the recommended dietary allowance (150 μg) and showed the relationship of high prevalence of goiter in this area.

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Abstract  

Thorium-232 and238U contents in four food groups were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Daily intakes of232Th and238U for Japanese were estimated to 2.22 mBq and 15.5 mBq per person, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary estimations were made for the effects of imported foods on internal exposures for Japanese.

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