investigated on a case-by-case basis. There is no reason why similar experimentalprocedures could not also be employed to study the relative strength of content and context biases in the spread of economic and political information
Generosity seems to be a cross-culturally ubiquitous feature of life.
Helping others is considered as a costly act through which the altruists gain
popularity and reputation in their reference group and this elevated reputation
will pay off for them in future social relationships. This costly signaling
theory has been widely tested in pre-industrial societies. Our purpose was to
examine if the assumptions of CST are verifiable in modern, industrial
societies. Using a complex experimental procedure with four subsequent phases
we could examine reputation-gaining in realistic conditions. We found that more
people are willing to offer help to a charity organization when their group
mates are aware of their altruistic intention than those whose offer was
concealed from the rest of the group. In return, the offered charity service
increased the altruist's reputation in the group; in the light of sociometric
surveys they gained more popularity than the others. Finally, it turned out
that whereas men are more likely to offer potentialhelp in the presence of
others, women provide more actualhelp.
studies involving human participants were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Each participant gave informed consent to the experimentalprocedure, which was approved by the
standards. Each participant gave informed consent to the experimentalprocedure, which was approved by Institutional Review Board of California State University, Fullerton.
We observed that very few participants
psychometric instruments and performed the stimulation procedure. ML developed the tDCS experimentalprocedure. LDR collaborated in both the evaluation and the writing procedures. MP prepared the literature review and tried to define the rationale of the study
). Participants were included after meeting the inclusion criteria (see Supplementary Methods ) and were reimbursed with 50 euros plus additional task earning (∼20 euros). Experimentalprocedure After providing written consent, participants underwent ∼1 h of
,000 ms. The sequence of standard and deviant stimuli was randomized. Please refer to Fig. 1 for specific experimentalprocedures. Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the experimentalprocedure and the stimuli examples. Each trial presented a single
points' and ‘Your shopping points'. The experimentalprocedure was programmed with PsychoPy software ( Peirce, 2007 ). During the Pavlovian phase, in each trial, one of three CS stimuli (300 × 300 pixels) appeared on the screen for 4s. After the CS
, including studies using other physiologic indices or experimentalprocedures to assess hyperexcitability and craving.
Interestingly, previous studies of Internet addiction, which is a behavioral addiction comparable to gambling disorder, have
out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Each participant gave informed consent to the experimentalprocedure, which was approved by the USC Institutional Review Board. Participants received $5 fixed remuneration, plus money won during the