The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of progressive selection generations in order to define the maximum efficiency of increasing yield in relation to the stage of selection procedure. Experimental procedure lasted five years on open-pollinated lines selected in two contrasting environments under low plant population. Mean grain yield of individual maize plants increased by 79% from C0 to C4 generation in environment A and 32% in environment B. Yield of individual plants was increased by 58% from C0 to C2 when selection was fully practiced in environment B. The progressive reduction of CV values through the selection generations revealed gene fixation and lack of segregation in selected lines which tended to be more uniform and homozygous. Low to medium negative kurtosis and low to medium positive skewness, accompanied by a more “squared” shape of distribution curve may indicate more homozygous genetic material that was categorized in clusters of similar C4 lines as was observed in environment A, depicting the end of selection procedure. In C4, a breeder may choose from the upper part of distribution curve (higher yielding plants) in order to avoid possible selection of deleterious genes at the kurtosis-biased lower part of the distribution curve. Our findings suggested the selection of cultivars of narrow adaptation, because at the initial stages of the selection program the effect of environment lead to different genetic materials, favouring certain genotypes. In our study environment B favoured selection procedure for developing high yielding open-pollinated lines for breeding and farming purposes.
have any funding source or grant to support their research work.
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. FRF, BB and MM designed the experimentalprocedures. AED, BO and AE
Animals and laboratory
The experimentalprocedures employed in this study were approved by the local animal ethics committee. All experiments were carried out in line with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory
method given by Davis (1947) and Mishra and co-workers (2014) , respectively. 1.3 Overview of experimental method Figure 1 illustrates an overall experimentalprocedure, where pomelo juice was frozen in a deep freezer (Lyolab_3S, Lyophilisation Sytems
using a Minolta Spectrophotometer CM-3600 d (Japan) according to the CIE L * a * b * system. 1.9 Statistical analysis Experimentalprocedure used in this study was summarised in Figure 1 . The effect of applications on physical quality of bread samples
body weight, Aladdin, S106853) and Control group and AD group were given an equal volume of distilled water by gavage daily ( Fig. 1A ). All experimentalprocedures followed the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition, ISBN-10
solution (30 v/v %) in Potter-Elvehjem instrument for appr. 20 sec in cold ice surrounding. The protein content of the liver homogenate was set at 10 mg ml −1 by the Lowry method ( Lowry et al., 1951 ).
The experimentalprocedures were
(B). Viability of A549/hACE2 cells was assessed using MTT method as described in ExperimentalProcedures section; controls – 0.05% DMSO; * P ≤ 0.001 VD3 –25-hydroxy Vitamin D 3 at 25 μg mL −1 , Zn – zinc aspartate at 2.5 μg mL −1