Introduction:The Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is an abdominal operation carried out with flexible endoscopic instruments and their advanced versions via natural orifices. The NOTES causes theoretically less pain, operative stress, shorter hospitalization, quicker recovery and it is scarless. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of transgastric small bowel resection. Materials and methods: Seven domestic pigs were investigated and entered the study; body weight 25 kg in average. General anesthesia was performed. One trocar was used for laparoscopic observations during gastrotomy and transgastric penetration with the gastroscope, later for assistance with a grasper for manipulation of the bowel loops and for the application of the linear stapling device. Then the needle knife was used to complete a 1.5 cm long incision in the gastric wall. The gastroscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity and a small bowel loop was identified and elevated with a flexible grasper. Through the second channel of the scope a coag grasper was used to dissect the mesentery. Then a linear stapler was inserted through the assisting trocar and the resection was performed. Afterwards the bowel ends were opened with the needle knife and the stapler was reinserted for a side-to-side anastomosis. The specimen was removed via the stomach. Gastric closure was completed by laparoscopic mini-instruments through the stapler-port. All special events and all problems were prospectively documented. Follow-up was performed over 2 weeks and body weight was recorded. Then a laparoscopy was performed to document adhesions or abscess formation. Finally the animals were sacrificed to evaluate further evidence of infection or adhesions. Results: The operations were carried without complications, there was no case of letal outcome. On the 12th day the abdominal laparoscopic revision was carried out, after the revision in one case adhesion could be detected, no other kinds of complications were noticed. Conclusion: According to our results, the transgastric small bowel resection is a safe procedure, but further special instruments are needed. These experimental procedures should be evaluated carefully and critically in clinical practice.
Korean native black goats using Western blot analysis and analysed the haplotype distribution of the PRNP gene. Materials and methods Ethical statement All experimentalprocedures were reviewed and approved by the Institute of Animal Care and Use
Animal welfare/ethical statement
All experimentalprocedures were reviewed and approved by the Animal Research Ethics Committee of the Bulgarian Food Safety Agency (BFSA) (Ar. 154 of the Law on Veterinary Activity) in accordance with
guidelines of the “Ethical Committee of Qom University of Medical Sciences,” which are based on the “NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.”
A total of 40 rats were divided into six
studies involving human participants were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Each participant gave informed consent to the experimentalprocedure, which was approved by the
standards. Each participant gave informed consent to the experimentalprocedure, which was approved by Institutional Review Board of California State University, Fullerton.
We observed that very few participants
The experimentalprocedure for measuring the neuromuscular activation of the inspiratory muscles by generating an increase in inspiratory flow velocity was as follows.
During the experiment, the subjects were placed in
All experimentalprocedures which were carried out on the animals have been conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and according to requirements of all applicable local and international standards, and had been approved by the
psychometric instruments and performed the stimulation procedure. ML developed the tDCS experimentalprocedure. LDR collaborated in both the evaluation and the writing procedures. MP prepared the literature review and tried to define the rationale of the study
) connected through amplifiers to a ITBS08 Integrated Tissue Bath System (Commat, Ankara, Turkey).
Adequate care was taken to insert the hooks without damaging the endothelium. After the stabilization