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447 455 Stone, N. J.: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardio (GISSI)-Prevenzione Trial on fish oil and vitamin E

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Tibor Gaál
,
L. Wágner
,
F. Husvéth
,
H. A. Manilla
,
P. Vajdovich
,
N. Balogh
,
I. Lóth
, and
Katalin Németh S.

The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver ?-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.

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Az ómega-3 zsírsavak pótlásának klinikai értéke krónikus obstruktív tüdőbetegségben

Clinical value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Mónika Fekete
,
Gergő Szőllősi
,
Anna Noémi Németh
, and
János Tamás Varga

: 603–607. [Hungarian] 29 Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, for the Nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
László Pál
,
Margit Kulcsár
,
Judit Poór
,
László Wágner
,
Szabolcs Nagy
,
Károly Dublecz
, and
Ferenc Husvéth

A study was conducted to examine the effects of different oils on the plasma corticosterone concentrations of broiler chickens fed ad libitum or deprived of feed for 24 hours. A total of 36 Ross broilers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments at 10 days of age and fed a grower diet supplemented with 60 g/kg soybean oil (rich in linoleic acid, C18:2n–6), linseed oil (rich in a-linolenic acid, C18:3n–3) or fish oil (rich in C14:0, C16:0, C16:1n–7, C20:1n–9; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, EPA, C20:5n–3 and DHA, C22:6n–3), respectively, for 18 days. Dietary supplementation of fish oil resulted in lower (P < 0.05) baseline plasma corticosterone levels of chickens fed ad libitum for 18 days compared to soybean and linseed oil supplementations. Feed deprivation for 24 h induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase in corticosterone concentration in every treatment group compared to the ad libitum-fed birds. The hormone levels of feed-deprived birds did not differ significantly among groups fed diets supplemented with different oils.

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In this experiment sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil were incubated in rumen-fistulated adult ewes (n = 5) to study conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in the rumen. The individual oils were incubated in nylon bags in the rumen on perlite carrier (40% oil, 60% carrier) over a period of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h for all treatments. During the incubation of each oil primarily the formation of the cis-9, trans-11 isomer of CLA could be observed. Both sunflower and soybean oils showed similar changes in the rumen. After the incubation of these two vegetable oils the proportion of linoleic acid decreased significantly as the duration of incubation increased in the rumen. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the amount of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. However, in the case of sunflower oil the rate of formation of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was significantly higher after the different incubation times as compared to soybean oil. Much lower amounts of CLA were formed when fish oil was incubated in the rumen. The level of cis-9, trans-11 isomer produced during these treatments was 10% less than the amount obtained with the other two oils of vegetable origin. Besides the cis-9, trans-11isomer, trans-10, cis-12 CLA could also be detected during the incubation of the different oils in the rumen. However, the level of this isomer was low and did not show consistent differences among the treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that the fatty acid composition of the oils and the duration of incubation collectively determine the amount of CLA produced in the first compartment of the forestomach of ruminants.

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The effect of supplementary methionine and fats of different saturation levels on the glutathione redox system of growing broiler cockerels was studied. The diet of three groups of chicks was supplemented with corn germ oil, beef tallow and fish oil at the levels of 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of feed, respectively. The diet of further three groups was supplemented with methionine (5 g/kg of feed) in addition to the different fat sources. Control chicks were fed with a compound feed without methionine and fat supplementation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content as well as glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver were determined and GSH/GSSG ratio was calculated at day old and then at one and three weeks of age. Our results indicate that supplementary methionine stimulates both the synthesis of the glutathione redox system and glutathione peroxidase activity in growing chickens in the first period of postnatal life, when the risk of lipid peroxidation is high due to feeding unsaturated fats in the diet.

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Az LDL-koleszterin helyett másodlagos lipidcélértékként a non-HDL-koleszterin használata javasolt, ha a triglicerid 2,3 mmol/l feletti. Ennek célértéke az adott cardiovascularis kockázati kategóriában 0,8 mmol/l-rel magasabb, mint az LDL-koleszteriné. Aktuálisan a lipidológia legfontosabb kérdése az lett, hogy a statin melletti residualis dyslipidaemia kezelése milyen mértékben csökkenti a cardiovascularis kockázatot. Ilyen szerepben az eddig vizsgált szerek – annak ellenére, hogy a HDL-koleszterint és/vagy non-HDL-koleszterint többé-kevésbé javították – alapvetően kudarcosak voltak. A legnagyobb vesztes a nikotinsav. A halolajjal végzett – ellentmondásos – cardiovascularis vizsgálatok az alkalmazott dózisok miatt nem tekinthetők lipidológiai tanulmánynak. A statinnal kombinált terápiaként szerepe lehet 1. az ezetimibnek, ha az LDL-koleszterin-célérték statin-monoterápiával nem érhető el, illetve 2. a fibrátnak, ha a trigliceridemelkedés nagymértékű, vagy ha enyhébb, de jelentős HDL-koleszterin-szint-csökkenéssel társul. Potenciális további lehetőségek: a HDL-koleszterint drasztikusan emelő és az LDL-koleszterint is jelentősen csökkentő koleszterinészter transzfer protein gátlók, illetve az LDL-koleszterint statin mellett is markánsan csökkentő proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 gátlók. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(2), 62–68.

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Trebble, T. M., Arden, N. K., Wootton, S. A.: Fish oil and antioxidants alter the composition and function of circulating mononuclear cells in Crohn disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 80 , 1137–1144. Wootton

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sarcopenia and type 2 diabetes. Nutr. Rev., 2011, 69 (11), 675–689. Télessy, I.: Nutraceuticals… Insight in the world of nutraceuticals based on example of fish oil. [Betekintés a táplálékkiegészítők világába a halolaj

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Tibor Vas
,
Tibor Kovács
,
István Késői
,
Balázs Sági
,
Péter Degrell
,
István Wittmann
, and
Judit Nagy

Donadio, J. V. Jr., Grande, J. P., Bergstralh, E. J., et al., for the Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group: The long-term outcome of patients with IgA nephropathy treated with fish oil in a controlled trial. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 1999, 10 , 1772

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