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Grain Protein Content (GPC) of wheat is significant for enhanced nutritional value and is one of the most important aspects effecting pasta and bread making quality as well. Seventy seven Pakistani wheat varieties and advance lines were analysed to access the allelic distribution at microsatellite Xuhw89 locus using functional SSR marker. Overall, 42% of tested wheat genotypes were found to carry 126 + 130-bp allele while a 126-bp allele was detected in 58% of genotypes. A target band of 126-bp was amplified in all tested genotypes, however, an additional band of 130-bp was also detected along with 126-bp band in 32 genotypes. Genotypes i.e. (Punjab-96) total soluble protein and (MEXI PAK) globulin with 126 + 130-bp allele while (Faisalabad-2008) salt soluble protein and (TC-4928) albumin with allele of 126-bp depicted highest grain protein content. The alleles identification associated with maximum grain protein content in Pakistani wheat germplasm will assist in accelerating the breeding program in future.

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Grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat is a crucial determinant of pasta quality and as such is an important economic factor. This study was carried out to determine the microsatellite markers (SSRs) as associated with GPC in durum wheat grown under normal and moisture stress conditions. F3 and F4 population derived from 151 F2 individuals developed from a cross between Oste-Gata (drought tolerant) and Massara-1 (drought susceptible) genotypes, were used. The population was evaluated under four environmental conditions (two irrigation regimes in two growing seasons). The results of single marker regression analysis (SMA) revealed that 2, 4 and 10 markers to be associated with GPC, test weight (TW) and 1000 grain weight (TGW), respectively. These markers explained between 4.4 and 21.8% of the phenotypic variation in either environmental condition. The most significant marker observed for GPC was located on 5B chromosome near Xgwm408 under normal conditions and the other marker was observed on 1A, explaining about 15% of phenotypic variance. However, it was not recognized any marker related to GPC under drought stress conditions. Xgwm408 marker was coincident with the markers identified for TW, TGW and components of grain yield under drought stress conditions. In spite of 5B, the other chromosomes such as 2B and 3B were related to quantitative traits like TW and TGW. Composite interval mapping (CIM) identified 4 and 5 putative minor and major QTL for TW and TGW, respectively. Two QTL near Xbarc101 and Xbarc124 markers on 3B and 2B chromosome, explained up to 45.2 and 6% of phenotypic variations of TGW and TW, respectively.

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158 164 Riley, E.A., Thompson, T.L., White, S.A., Ottman, M.J. 1998. Late season tissue tests for critical grain protein content in durum, Maricopa. In: Ottman, M. (ed.), Forage

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.A., Procunier, J.D., Humpreys, G.G., Tranquilli, G., Schlatter, A.R., Marcucci-Poltri, S., Frohberg, R., Dubcovsky, J. 2000. Development of PCR-based markers for a high grain protein content gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides transferred to bread

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In a long-term experiment on continuous maize set up by Béla Győrffy in 1959, changes in biotic and abiotic environmental factors were studied over time. The long-term effects and stability of the cropping systems, the year effects and the genotype × environment interactions were analysed. The original aim of the experiment was to determine whether the NPK nutrients in farmyard manure could be replaced partially or entirely by inorganic NPK fertiliser. In the present experiment the effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertiliser and the year effect on yield and yield stability were studied for four years (2005–2008). Various levels of farmyard manure and mineral fertiliser induced significant changes in the yield, harvest index, thousand-kernel mass, grain number per ear and grain protein content.

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Blanco, A., Simeone, R., Gadaleta, A. 2006. Detection of QTLs for grain protein content in durum wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112 :1195–1204. Gadaleta A. Detection of QTLs for grain

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.T. Xue, A. Gianinetti, R. Wang, Z.J. Zhan, J. Yan, Y. Jiang, T. Fahima, G. Zhao, and J.P. Cheng

Crop seeds are the main staples in human diet, especially in undeveloped countries. In any case, the diet needs to be rich not only in macro-nutrients like carbohydrates and protein, but also in micro-nutrients. Nevertheless, both the macro- and micro-nutrients presented in seeds largely vary in consequence of field and environment conditions. In this research, 60 lines of a barley RILs population segregating for the SSR marker Hvm74, which is genetically linked to the GPC (grain protein content) locus (HvNAM-1), were studied in 4 environments (two growing years and two field managements) by carrying out a comprehensive profile of seed macro- (starch, total nitrogen and total soluble protein) and micro-nutrients (phytate, phenolics, flavonoids, Pi, Zn and Fe). Under field conditions, all the components were largely affected by the environment, but TN (total nitrogen) exhibited high genotype contribution, while micro-nutrients displayed higher genotype × environments interactions (GEI) than macro-nutrients. In order to approach the effects of carbon-nitrogen (C–N) balance on other seed components, two C/N ratios were calculated: C/TN (CNR1) and C/TSP (CNR2). CNR2 exhibited stronger negative correlations with all micro-nutrients. Hence, the significant GEI and its negative relationships with CNR2 highlighted the different characters of micro-nutrients in barley seeds.

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Eleven spring wheat cultivars were compared in terms of the stability of their grain yield and grain quality. The cultivars’ stability was evaluated separately at two different crop management levels – moderate-input management and high-input management. Three stability models were used for the two crop management levels based on a linear mixed model framework with restricted maximum likelihood. The Shukla model was the most appropriate for the evaluation of stability of tested spring wheat cultivars. The thousand-grain weight, starch content, Zeleny sedimentation value and test weight were characterized, and the stability ranking cultivars at moderate-input management level was mostly consistent with the rank of cultivars 24 for high-input management level. For grain yield, grain protein content and wet gluten content, the stability rankings were not consistent. Cultivars ‘Monsun’ and ‘Parabola’ are the most stable cultivars for grain yield in moderate-input management and high-input management, respectively. Cultivar ‘Hewilla’ was the stable cultivar for all quality traits at moderate-input management. Cultivar ‘Arabella’ was the most stable cultivar at high-input management level.

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The effects of sowing date, nitrogen application level and timing on barley protein components and malt quality were investigated. There was a significant difference in total protein and its protein fractions among the four barley genotypes. The protein component was changeable over the different growing conditions, and the extent of change varied with protein fraction and genotype. Marked variation in malt quality over the different environments (sowing date, N fertilizer rate and applying time) was also observed. Increased N fertilizer application increased diastatic power (DP) value, but reduced malt extract. Grain protein content was significantly and positively correlated with albumin, globulin and hordein, but was not correlated with glutelin. However, glutelin was significantly related to other malt quality parameters.

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Triticale is a high yielding cereal grain which performs well as a dual-purpose crop (both mid-season biomass and end-season grain harvests), however, is usually inferior to wheat under the requirements of a high-value milling grain market. There is potential to increase the profitability of dual-purpose triticale by improving grain quality for food products. Currently the ash content of triticale grain is above acceptable limits and protein content is usually below the requirement for a milling market. This research compared the yield, test weight, ash and protein content of four winter triticale genotypes in replicated grain only and dual-purpose treatments over five year-site environments, based on a previously reported hypothesis that removal of triticale biomass reduces grain ash content.Cutting had a highly variable influence on yield and protein content between genotypes. Ash content was either unaffected or increased by cutting, again depending on the genotype. Ash content was negatively correlated with both stage of plant development when cut (explaining 82% of the variation) and amount of dry matter removed (explaining 65% of the variation). The results suggest that ash content in dual-purpose triticale grain may be reduced by combining suitable cultivars with later cutting; however, this may also decrease the grain protein content. It is unlikely that grazing or cutting is a suitable strategy to reduce ash content in triticale to the level required by wheat milling markets.

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