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define the parameters with the highest impact and potential in thermal comfort and energy efficiency. The focus of the case study was a typical high-rise office building In Greece, in the Mediterranean climate zone. Initial simulations were carried out to

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[ 3 , 4 ]. Most design optimization studies investigate energy-saving solutions in offices [ 5 , 6 ], high-rise office buildings in particular, by optimizing one subsystem of the building, e.g., façade structures, wall-window ratios

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1 Introduction The design and the construction of high-rise office buildings are increasing in response to the several needs and challenges of today's modern society. New implementation plans are found all

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-intensive indoor conditioning technology, consequently, current high-rise office buildings are not energy efficient, comfort and health problems arise [ 5–7 ], sick building syndrome, and cannot provide a sustainable solution. The utilization of natural ventilation

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Retrofit of the old building stock presents a good possibility to reduce the energy consumption. However, as the envelopes of old buildings become tighter, a risk increases that the fresh outside air supplied to the indoor environment by natural infiltration can decrease below the amounts required for a comfortable indoor environment, especially in buildings where mechanical ventilation has not been installed. This study presents an efficient method to measure the ventilation intensity, demonstrated on a 40-years old high-rise office building after a complete envelope retrofit. The well-established tracer gas decay and tracer gas step-up method were employed to obtain the ventilation intensity, using the natural CO2 produced by the occupants as the tracer gas. The measured values of the air change rate were between 0.1 and 0.7 1/h for the simple façade, whereas it ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 1/h for the double skin façade, with the windows closed. The level of compliance with ventilation requirements varied, depending on the standard and the philosophy adopted.

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. Naili , I. Háber , and I. Kistelegdi , “ Façade typology development in high-rise office building envelope ,” Pollack Period. , vol. 18 , no.  2 , pp. 151 – 156 , 2023 . [5] A. Sharma , V. V. Tyagi , C. R. Chen , and D. Buddhi

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