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Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker (Teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechs. Ex. Dastur) is a serious necrotrophic pathogen of wheat and barley in several countries. In this paper we report on mechanism of resistance and histopathological changes that occur on pathogen attack in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Callose deposition was observed in the epidermal cell wall of resistant genotype, Pusa T3336 at 2DAI. Lignin deposition around mesophyll tissues was also strongly observed by Phloroglucinol-HCl test in Pusa T3336. Four days after inoculation (4DAI), the pathogen colonized the leaf tissues showing inter and intracellular hyphae in susceptible genotype, Agralocal. In resistant genotype, no colonization was observed. The host tissue in susceptible genotype showed degeneration away from the site of colonization and also showed loss of structural integrity thereby indicating the role of toxin in pathogenesis. Separation of plasmalemma from the cell wall was observed due to loss of electrolytes and degradation of chloroplast at 5 DAI in the susceptible genotypes was prominently seen through light microscopy.

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Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

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Resistance in different genotypes of tomato to Meloidogyne incognita were studied using screening and molecular studies. Lycopersicon peruvianum , a wild species of tomato showed resistance reaction to Meloidogyne incognita under artificial screening infection studies. L. peruvianum , showed least penetration rate of one nematode. In susceptible wild species L. pimpinellifolium , varieties and hybrid, feeding sites were characterized by giant cells containing granular cytoplasm and many hypertrophied nuclei. In L. peruvianum , the vascular tissues were not disturbed and epidermal layer showed lignin bodies which have accumulated and inhibited the nematodes into the roots. RT-PCR analysis to detect presence of resistance (R) gene showed a 877 bp amplicon present only in L. peruvianum . Sequence analysis of the partial cDNA from L. peruvianum showed considerable homology with already available disease resistance gene against Meloidogyne incognita . These results have important consequences in terms of transformation strategies to develop root knot nematode resistant transgenic plants.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
D. Das
,
S. Tamuly
,
M. Das Purkayastha
,
B. Dutta
,
C. Barman
,
D.J. Kalita
,
R. Boro
, and
S. Agarwal

Abstract

Green tea or its concentrated extract is coveted for its health promoting catechin-like polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, its amicable efficacy is now being doubted considering the recent occurrence of several cases of hepato- and nephrotoxicity, after the ingestion of EGCG-fortified (≥85–90%) nutritional supplements. Therefore, the current study was carried out to ascertain the effect of green tea leaves extract (GTE), having low EGCG content (73.8%), on liver and kidney functions of male Wistar rats using various in vivo experiments and in vitro radical scavenging activity. In terms of acute toxicity, GTE was observed to be safe when delivered at a dosage of 2000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). Oral delivery of GTE for 28 days at a concentration of 200 mg kg−1 BW/day did not trigger sub-acute toxicity to the liver and kidneys, as per serum biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. In contrast, GTE counteracted the effects of carbon tetrachloride (a potent hepato-degenerative compound) on the liver. Furthermore, increase in high-density lipoprotein―cholesterol with concomitant lowering of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein―cholesterol were noticed in GTE-treated rats. These findings suggest that low EGCG containing GTE, with appreciable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 53.18–71.28 μg mL−1), can serve as a hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic ingredient.

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Introduction

Elevated oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been proposed as one of the major risk factors in pathophysiology of several organ damages including liver tissue.

Materials and methods

In this study, we evaluated the effect of swimming training on hepatic oxidative markers, SIRT1 gene expression, and histological alterations in T2DM. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (N = 7): control, exercise, diabetic, and diabetic + exercise. One week after the induction of T2DM, rats were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, oxidative markers (SOD, GPx, CAT activities, and MDA level) and SIRT1 gene expression were measured in the liver by special kits and RT-PCR, respectively. Hematoxylin–eosin statins were used for histological alterations.

Results

Swimming training attenuated MDA levels and enhanced SOD, GPx, and CAT activities in the liver of diabetic animals. Furthermore, swimming training restored the expression of SIRT1 in T2DM. Histopathological finding of the hepatic tissue confirmed a protective role for swimming training in diabetic rats.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that swimming training attenuates oxidative stress probably by upregulation of SIRT1 in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Gangadhararao Appana
,
Dipankar Das
,
Maroudam Veerasami
,
Ramachandran Lakshmikanthan Senthilkumar
,
Munishkumar Durishetty
,
B. Ramalakshmi
,
Vijay Bahekar
,
Falguni Mukherjee
,
Dev Chandran
,
P. Uday Kumar
,
B. Sesikeran
, and
Dr. Villuppanoor Alwar Srinivasan Ph.D.

Abstract

A male cattle calf was detected as subclinically and naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) by a series of antemortem and postmortem tests. The MAP infection was identified by strong antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response by a commercial ELISA kit and an intradermal Johnin test, respectively, in the initial antemortem examination. The antemortem status of the calf was further confirmed by MAP-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) response. For detection of IFN-γ response, MAP-specific IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs): (a) immuno capture ELISA (IC-ELISA) and (b) ELISPOT was employed. In addition, the presence of intracellular cytokine IFN-γ was detected by flow cytometry. For all cytokine assays, MAP-specific recombinant antigens HSP65 and 35 kDa were employed to overcome the poor sensitivity and specificity resulting from the use of Johnin, the crude protein purified derivative of MAP. Postmortem examination of the MAP-infected/suspected cattle calf did not reveal any pathognomonic gross lesions in the gastro-intestinal tract. Histopathological examination of multiple organs showed the presence of epithelioid cells/macrophages and edematous lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes suggestive of MAP; however, no granulomas were observed in the intestinal tract. The necropsy samples of rectum and mesenteric lymph nodes were positive for isolation of MAP by culture in the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system, and acid fast bacilli were demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy confirming the infection. Due to differential and complex expression patterns of MAP antigens reported in literature, a combination of assays such as those based on IGRAs and antibody detection is essential. Therefore, the current experimental evidence confirms the efficacy of the approach adopted. However, further studies will be needed to understand the optimal combination MAP-specific antigens for use in IGRAs or antibody assays that can be used for detecting MAP infection in every stage of the disease.

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The linear hypertrophic scar has become the most common type of pathologic scarring. Silicone-gel sheeting is the first line therapy while intralesional steroid is the second. A light and electron microscopic analysis was carried out to reveal differences in tissue reaction following the two different treatments.Two groups of 12 patients each were treated for 4 months. For the first group, diluted Triamcinolone acetonide was injected until an inactive state was achieved. The other group of patients was treated with silicone-gel sheeting. The scars were examined every two weeks and their appearance documented. After reaching the expected therapeutic response, inactive scars were removed. The excised scars were evaluated through light microscopic histopathology and electron microscopy.The light and electron microscopic observations revealed marked differences following treatments. The activity of fibroblasts and the numbers of collagen fibers forming bundles decreased and the orientation of the collagen fibers was more variable in the treated scars. The amount of elastic fibers increased after both steroid and silicone-gel sheeting treatment. Vascularization was also slightly changed, with more capillaries and fewer pre-capillary arteries detected in the treated scars. Both treatments resulted in the same decrease in score but steroid treatment was more rapid in onset. We suggest that the two different treatments work through different mechanisms, although the final functional outcome is similar.

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Vinpocetine is a widely used drug for the treatment of cerebrovascular and memory disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vinpocetine on the acute hepatic injury caused in the rat by the administration of CCl 4 in vivo . Vinpocetine (2.1, 4.2, 8.4 mg/kg) or silymarin (30 mg/kg) was given once daily orally simultaneously with CCl 4 and for 15 days thereafter. Liver damage was assessed by determining serum enzyme activities and hepatic histopathology. Stained sections were subjected to morphometric evaluation using computerized image analyzer. The results showed that vinpocetine administered to CCl 4 -treated rats decreased the elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by 49.3, 58.1 and 63.6%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) by 10.5, 22.6 and 27.2% and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 52.5, 59.6 and 64.9%, respectively, and in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, silymarin reduced elevated ALT, AST and ALP levels by 53.1, 26.9 and 66%, respectively. Histological examination of liver specimens revealed a marked reduction in liver cell necrosis in vinpocetine and silymarin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated CCl 4 -treated rats. Quantitative analysis of the area of damage showed 85.3% reduction in the area of damage after silymarin and 72.2, 78.9 and 82.6% reduction after vinpocetine treatment at 2.1, 4.2, 8.4 mg/kg, respectively. It is concluded that administration of vinpocetine in a model of CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats reduced liver damage. The reduction obtained by 4.2 mg/kg of vinpocetine was similar to that obtained by 30 mg/kg silymarin. Therefore, it is suggested that vinpocetine might be a good pharmacological agent in the treatment of liver disease besides its neuroprotective effects.

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Kearney, M., Pieczek, A., Haley, L., Losordo, D. W., Andres, V., Schainfeld, R., Rosenfield, K., Isner, J. M. (1997) Histopathology of in-stent restenosis in patients with peripheral artery disease. Circulation 95 , 1998

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surface . Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 60 , 155 – 162 . 21. Rodríguez , M. A. , Venedikian , N. , Bazzalo , M. E. , Godeas , A. ( 2004 ) Histopathology of Sclerotinia

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