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The paper presents an exhaustive list of plant names in the Kāśyapīyakrsisūkti, the most important Sanskrit treatise on agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry dated from the early medieval period. The Sanskrit names are given with full reference to the verses where they appear and together with the up-to-date botanical terms and occasionally with the current English names.

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The period lasting from the Compromise betweeen Austria and Hungary in 1867 to World War I was a ‘golden age’ of Hungarian horticulture and garden art. Country houses with their parks belonged traditionally to the way of living of the aristocracy. The ‘construction boom’ generated by a fruitful interplay of the favourable economic conditions of the ‘Gründerzeit’ and the related social needs and financial abilities, resulted in a multitude of new gardens. This surge of development almost coincided with the spread of historical revivalism in garden design from the 1860s and with an increasing role played by Hungarian creators of gardens in addition to foreign specialists who settled or were invited to work here.

The period between the two World Wars did not effect a fatal break in this garden culture. In some cases, this slowly consolidating period brought real efflorescence (e.g. Hatvan, Röjtökmuzsaj, Szeleste), though these places were the exceptions. The construction and transformation of parks together with the modernization of houses continued in the interwar decades (e.g. Dég, Röjtökmuzsaj) and considerable new establishments were also created (e.g. Vajta, Csorvás, Selyp).

The country house gardens of historical revivalism, with their spectacular parterres, avenues, exotic plant rarities grown in the greenhouses or nursery gardens and transferred to the pleasure-grounds or shown at exhibitions, with their sports facilities and family mausoleums represented the prestige of the aristocracy which still clearly played the leading role in politics and society despite their declining economic and cultural influence. Alternatively they expressed the ambition of a new plutocracy to acquire social legitimation for their wealth. In a few cases and in both groups, there was something else: the garden became the site and instrument through which they could achieve accomplishment by means of creative activity.

The present study is a first attempt at summarising the partial results of research that in its initial phase on the topic. It describes 12 sites in detail, 9 from the period between 1880 and World War I, and 3 from the 1920–30s. After the descripions it gives a preliminary overview of tendences and characteristics of the examined period including the transformation of the landscape garden, revivalist structural elements, follies and utilitarian garden structures, statuary and other garden ornaments, landscape gardeners and creative owners, mainteneance and productive gardening, with a lot of further examples and personalities. Finally, a brief outlook closes the study to the post-1945 survival of the gardens described and historical revivalism in garden art in general.

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Baroque tradition in early Romanticism •

Grounding the modern literary canon in Hungary

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Sándor Bene

good century, a kind of “replanting” of the tradition of modernity, whether we understand the term in a horticultural sense or as an equivalent of „installing” used in information technology. In the following, I will discuss the main points of these

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high price of cereals generated significant income. The horticultural units inherited from the socialist predecessor, which required a lot of manual labour and could not be run profitably, were dismantled. A significant part of the revenue was used for

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horticulture. A higher ratio of weeds ( Fig. 9 ) indicates the presence of roads, settlements, pastures, meadows, fields and ploughlands, the patchy and non-contiguous transformation of some 5% – maximum 10% – of the river valley ecosystem’s territory. Aside

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total of 75 people outside the association are engaged in crop production, horticulture, viticulture and forestry on an area of more than 1 ha. These private farmers (or, as they are called in the village, privátok or pirivisek ) farm less than 20% of

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Ménfőcsanak toward the dead channel of the Marcal, then turns westwards toward Gyimrót. 7 At the time of A. Uzsoki’s rescue excavations, it was only a dirt road. The Kertészeti Vállalat (Horticultural Enterprise) used the lands south of the stretch that runs

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In this article I describe the destruction of the vineyards in the northern Bihar region. What was still a flourishing horticulture in the first half of the 20th century declined between 1945 and 1989. Three factors played a role in the process of destruction. Chronologically the first was the compulsory delivery system of the Rákosi era and its wine tax policy (1949–1953). The second factor was the termination of the private ownership of land (1961), the third can be linked to the spread of production for the market in household plots (1968). The decline of the vineyards accelerated between 1968 and 1989, and unquestionably reached its peak in the decades following the change of system when the classification of garden zone (involving the obligation to cultivate the land) was ended and as a consequence the vines were replaced by forest areas (from 1994 to the present).

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–1572) was the famous Kreuterbuch of Adam Lonitzer/Lonicerus. The first work on horticulture in the Hungarian language was written by the Jesuit teacher János Lippai (1606‒1666). The first of the three volumes, Posoni kert , was published in 1664. The

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Social Change, Dress and Identity

Observations on the Disintegration of Peasant Culture as Exemplified by Rural Women’s Clothing in Hungary from the First World War to the End of the Kádár Era Socialism

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author:
Ágnes Fülemile

culture to flourish: coal mining in Kazár; railway work in Bag and Tura; 34 intensive horticulture and selling produce in the city’s foodmarkets in the Galga river valley near Budapest, or in Sióagárd near Szekszárd, the county seat. “A relatively late

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