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In the case of organic production the quality assessment of the fruits and vegetables is especially important. Monitoring of the maturation and ripening process, early detection of diseases, decision about harvest date and postharvest treatment need reliable, objective and – preferably – non-destructive quality testing methods. Dynamic hardness or stiffness measurement methods (resonance, impact, wave propagation) offer very useful tools in this field, but with strong limitations in applicability area and/or physical interpretation of the measured parameters. Our objective was to develop method and appropriate portable instrumentation to measure surface hardness – as quality measure – with a nondestructive method.

The computer controlled instrument has an electromagnetically excited impactor fitted with a piezoelectric acceleration sensor, a signal conditioner and A/D converter. To ensure the uniform contact behavior (contact area) between the impactor and the tested produce of wide range of shape, spherical head was applied. Conclusively, Hertz contact theory is to be applied for evaluation of the impact signal. Instead of using empirical “hardness index” – as in the case of several existing instruments – our objective was the physical interpretation of the contact phenomena. The measured acceleration signal was mathematically processed to calculate real physical parameters (force, speed, deformation), and to characterize the process similarly to the widely used texture analyzers, penetrometers. A new hardness parameter – “dynamic elastic modulus” – was introduced. According to the methodological investigations, the measurement was found to be perfectly non-destructive for a wide range of products. Conclusively, the developed method offers a useful tool for quality evaluation of organic horticultural products.

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The Servo agro spray oil (petroleum based horticulture oil) was evaluated in the laboratory against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae to determine its effect on adult mortality, viability of eggs, oviposition deterrence and repellent properties. The same was also evaluated in the field to determine its effect on mite population. Direct spray method was used in the laboratory at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%. Mortality of O. coffeae was both concentration and time dependent. Deposition of eggs by adult mites on treated leaf surfaces decreased significantly and the viability of eggs was also significantly reduced. In addition, different concentrations of the Servo agro spray also exhibited repellent properties against adult mites. In the field Servo agro spray oil significantly reduced the mite population and its bio-efficacy was comparable to that of the synthetic pesticide (propargite 57 EC). No phytotoxic effect was observed when tea bushes were sprayed with different doses of Servo agro spray. Tea samples were taint free. Quality (appearance of liquor, flavour, taint and taste) of made tea was not adversely affected by treatments with Servo agro spray oil. Therefore Servo agro spray oil may be a potential agent to be used in the sustainable management of tea red spider mite.

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. http://faostat.fao.org Lee J. M. — Oda M. 2003. Grafting of herbaceous vegetable and ornamental crops. Horticultural Reviews 28: 61–124. Oda M

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El-Saka, M. M., Awad, A. E., Fahmy, B., Dowh, A. K. (1995): Influence of ethephon, silver thiosulfate and sucrose pulsing on bird-of-paradise vase life. Postharvest physiology, pathology and technologies for horticultural commodities. Proceedings

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.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_017/0002334). This study was funded by the Internal Grant Agency, Faculty of Horticulture, Mendel University in Brno (IGA-ZF/2020-DP005). References Apak

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Hassan, F. A. S., Gerzson, L. 2002: Effect of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) on the vase life of Chrysanthemum and Carnation cut flowers. International Journal of Horticultural Science , 8 , 29

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). Effect of grafting eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) on its selected useful characters . Bulletin UASVM Horticulture , 72 ( 2 ): 318 – 326 . Bie , Z. , Azher Nawaz , M. , Huang , Y. , Lee , J.-M. and Colla , G. ( 2017 ). Importance and use

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Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. is a herbaceous biennial belonging to the solanaceae family. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine as main tropane alkaloids accumulated in henbane are widely used in medicine to treat diseases such as parkinson’s or to calm schizoid patients. Hairy roots media manipulation which uses elicitors to activate defense mechanisms is one of the main strategies for inducing secondary metabolism as well as increasing the production of valuable metabolites. Cotyledon-derived hairy root cultures were transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor), was used in various concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μM) and exposure times (24 and 48 h). Treatment with SNP led to a significant reduction in fresh and dry weight of hairy roots, compared to control cultures. ANOVA results showed that elicitation of hairy root cultures with SNP at different concentrations and exposure times significantly affected the activity of as antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The highest hyoscyamine and scopolamine production (about 1.2-fold and 1.5-fold increases over the control) was observed at 50 and 100 μM SNP at 48 and 24 hours of exposure time, respectively. This is the first report of SNP elicitation effects on the production of tropane alkaloids in hairy root cultures.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Neda Haddadderafshi
,
Tímea Borbála Pósa
,
Gábor Péter
,
László Gáspár
,
Márta Ladányi
,
Károly Hrotkó
,
Noémi Lukács
, and
Krisztián Halász

. Haddadderafshi , N. , Halász , K. , Pósa , T. , Péter , G. , Hrotkó , K. , Gáspár , L. , Lukács , N. ( 2011 ) Diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from cherry (Prunus avium) . J. Horticulture Forestry Biotech. 15 , 1 – 6

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