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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel
,
Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano
,
Alejandra Mendoza-Larios
,
Jesús Hernández-Tinoco
,
José Francisco Pérez-Ochoa
,
Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido
,
Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez
, and
Oliver Liesenfeld

The presence of tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii has only poorly been investigated in autopsy series. We determined the presence of T. gondii cysts in a series of 51 autopsies in a public hospital using immunohistochemistry of brain and heart tissues. The association of tissue cysts with the general characteristics of the autopsy cases was also investigated.

Of the 51 cases studied, five (9.8%) were positive by immunohistochemistry for T. gondii cysts in the brain. None of the heart specimens was positive for T. gondii cysts. The presence of T. gondii cysts in brains did not vary with age, sex, birthplace, residence, education, occupation, or the presence of pathology in the brain. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that the presence of T. gondii cysts was associated with undernourishment (OR = 33.90; 95% CI: 2.82–406.32; P = 0.005).

We demonstrated cerebral T. gondii cysts in an autopsy series in Durango City, Mexico. Results suggest that T. gondii can be more readily found in brain than in heart of infected individuals. This is the first report of an association between the presence of T. gondii in brains and undernourishment.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Laura Alejandra Mendoza-Larios
,
Fernando García-Dolores
,
Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano
,
Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido
,
Jesús Hernández-Tinoco
,
Adriana Rocha-Salais
,
Marcela Araceli Segoviano-Mendoza
,
Antonio Sifuentes-Álvarez
, and
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

immunohistochemistry Brain tissues (amygdala and prefrontal cortex) of decedents were examined for detection of T. gondii using immunohistochemistry. Brain tissues were formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded sections were examined using the Tinto Detector Immuno DNA

Open access

Distribution of the potassium channel of Kv4.3 type was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of Helix pomatia by immunohistochemistry. Immunopositive neurons were found widely distributed in the CNS, present mostly in smaller groups in the different central ganglia but not in the visceral ganglion. Labeled fibers were characteristic for not only the neuropils of all ganglia but also the connective tissue sheath around the CNS and the aorta wall were richly innervated. Western blot analysis revealed a clear identity with the mammalian Kv4.3 subunit, suggesting an evolutionary conserved structure of this channel type. Our preliminary results provide a steady basis for further experiments aiming partly at the identification of other potassium channel types and partly the ultrastructural localization of Kv4.3.

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The procerebrum of stylommatophoran snails produces nitric oxide (NO)-modulated oscillatory local field potentials which are considered the basis of olfactory information processing. Although the function of NO is well characterized in the PC, the identification and distribution of NO synthase (NOS) has not known completely. In the present study, applying a mammalian anti-NOS antibody, a 170 kDa molecular weight NOS-like protein was demonstrated in the procerebrum homogenate of Helix pomatia. NOS-like immunolabeling of the globuli cells, the internal and terminal neuropils displayed an identical distribution compared to that of NADPH-diaphorase reactive material, confirming the specificity of immunohistochemistry. The detailed characteristics of the immunostaining (different intensity of the neural perikarya, a gradual appearance in the terminal neuropil and in the axon bundles of the tentacular nerve, as well as an intense, homogeneous distribution of NOS-like immunoreactivity in the internal neuropil) suggest that NOS is expressed constitutively, maintaining a high level of the enzyme in neuropil areas. NOS accumulation in the internal neuropil suggests that NO plays an important role in delivering olfactory signals extrinsic to the procerebrum, and integrating them with other sensory modalities, respectively. Our results are the first, demonstrating unequivocally the presence of NOS and resolving its differential distribution in the Helix procerebrum.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Károly Elekes
,
László Hiripi
,
Gábor Balog
,
Gábor Maász
,
Izabella Battonyai
,
Marina Yu. Khabarova
,
Réka Horváth
, and
Elena E. Voronezhskaya

Hatching is an important phase of the development of pulmonate gastropods followed by the adult-like extracapsular foraging life. Right before hatching the juveniles start to display a rhythmic radula movement, executed by the buccal complex, consisting of the buccal musculature (mass) and a pair of the buccal ganglia. In order to have a detailed insight into this process, we investigated the serotonergic regulation of the buccal (feeding) rhythm in 100% stage embryos of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, applying quantitative immunohistochemistry combined with the pharmacological manipulation of the serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, by either stimulating (by the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HTP) or inhibiting (by the 5-HT synthesis blocker para-chlorophenylalanine, pCPA) it. Corresponding to the direction of the drug effect, significant changes of the fluorescence intensity could be detected both in the cerebral ganglia and the buccal complex. HPLC-MS assay demonstrated that 5-HTP increased meanwhile pCPA decreased the 5-HT content both of the central ganglia and the buccal complex. As to the feeding activity, 5-HTP induced only a slight (20%) increase, whereas the pCPA resulted in a 20% decrease of the radula protrusion frequency. Inhibition of 5-HT re-uptake by clomipramine reduced the frequency by 75%. The results prove the role of both central and peripheral 5-HTergic processes in the regulation of feeding activity. Application of specific receptor agonists and antagonists revealed that activation of a 5-HT1-like receptor depressed the feeding activity, meanwhile activation of a 5-HT6,7-like receptor enhanced it. Saturation binding plot of [3H]-5-HT to receptor and binding experiments performed on membrane pellets prepared from the buccal mass indicated the presence of a 5-HT6-like receptor positively coupled to cAMP. The results suggest that 5-HT influences the buccal (feeding) rhythmic activity in two ways: an inhibitory action is probably exerted via 5-HT1-like receptors, while an excitatory action is realized through 5-HT6,7-like receptors.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Meliha Sengezer-Inceli
,
O. Murathanoglu
,
Songül Castillo
,
Serap Sancar-Bas
, and
E. Kaptan

The role of prolactin in the regulation of frog skin functions is still unclear particularly during environmental changes. In this study, prolactin receptor (PRLR) was detected in active and hibernating frog dorsal skin using immunohistochemical method. PRLR immunoreactivity in active frogs was observed in the epidermis, in the secretory epithelium of granular glands and the secretory channel cells of the glands. Myoepithelial cells of granular glands that started accumulating secretory material or those with a full lumen were PRLR immunoreactive, while some myoepithelial cells of empty granular glands were negative for PRLR. In hibernating frogs, this immunoreactivity was observed in the same regions; however, immunoreactivity was more intense than that in active frogs. PCNA was employed for detection of proliferative activity of PRL in the dorsal skin, and immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of a few epidermis cells and in the duct of glands of active frogs. The number of immunoreactive nuclei in these regions increased in hibernating and in prolactin injected groups. We conclude that prolactin provides morphological and functional integrity of skin stimulating the proliferation and regulating the function of granular glands and plays an important role in the adaptation of amphibians to the long winter period.

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Organization of the innervation of the buccal region by 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR) elements was investigated in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis , with special attention to developmental aspects. A gradual maturation is characteristic for the 5-HT-IR muscle innervation, appearing first by late (E80–90%) embryogenesis. It runs parallel with the muscle development and the maturation of the 5-HTergic innervation in the buccal ganglia, peaking by the mid-postembryogenesis (P3) with the presence of a 5-HTIR network in the buccal mass and rich innervation in the buccal ganglia, including axo-somatic contacts. The whole process seems to match with the appearance of the adult-like feeding (radula protrusion).

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Behavioral conditioning in Lymnaea increased the amount of immunolabeling in the central nervous system for the memory-associated protein calexcitin. The staining level of anti-calexcitin positive neurons was always stronger in conditioned animals than in naïe animals. In the visuo-vestibular conditioned animals, right-parietal and visceral group neurons as well as withdrawal-related neurons were positively stained with anti-calexcitin antibody. In taste-aversion conditioned animals, right-parietal visceral G-group neurons and withdrawal-related neurons were selectively stained. These neurons are candidate neurons for modulation by these conditioning paradigms.

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For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of cephalopods with respect to their neurotransmitter phenotypes. This study presents preliminary results on the distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons within the CNS of the pygmy squid Idiosepius notoides . Its gross neuroanatomy resembles that of other cephalopods. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was observed in most of the brain lobes. High abundance of FMRFamidergic perikarya was found in the dorsal basal, the central palliovisceral, and the olfactory lobes, whereas none were observed in the middle suboesophageal mass. Single individual perikarya are located within the optic lobes and the vertical lobes. Although certain immunohistochemical traits are shared with other cephalopods, such as a wall-like arrangement of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive cell somata within the dorsal basal lobe, others have so far only been found in Idiosepius . However, future investigations on other species are necessary in order to broaden our knowledge on a common recruitment of certain neurotransmitters in distinct brain lobes of the highly advanced brain of cephalopods.

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The tissue expression of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in vertebrates, as well as their evolutionary tendencies and relation to histogenesis, especially in the reproductive system, are not entirely understood.The present research comprises a large-scale immunohistochemical study of HBGAA and B expression in ovaries and testicles of 14 species belonging to six classes of free-living vertebrates from Chondrichtyes to Mammalia .We present novel data for ABH antigen reactivity in reproductive organs of vertebrates which have not been studied so far. Our results suggest that HBGA are evolutionary stable structures, most possibly related to vitellogenesis in oocytes with high yolk content. The tendency observed in A and B antigen expression is mostly associated with the processes of gamete differentiation and vitellogenesis, rather than with the evolutionary development of vertebrate species.

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