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developed and developing countries. Problem-oriented scientometric investigations of the institutionalization, interdisciplinarity and internationalization of science contribute to enhancement of the quality and effectiveness of science forefront

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Abstract  

Within the field of the organisation of science, concerns about how academics generate patents tend to focus on a single set of either national or international patents. The main aim of this research is to study both national and international patenting in order to understand their differences. We have approached this issue from both a historical and an economic perspective, using data from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the largest PRO in Spain. Three periods can be distinguished in the CSIC’s history, according to the political context, namely the dictatorship (1939–1975), the transition to democracy (1976–1986) and democracy (1987-to date). The prevailing legal and institutional framework has marked the way in which patenting by CSIC has evolved in each of these periods. The current situation is one in which there is strong internationalisation of patenting activity, and in this most-recent period we explore trends in some of the economic influences on patenting activity. We conclude that the political and normative context may shape the culture of international patenting at PROs like the CSIC and that increasing technological cooperation has supported this internationalisation. However, very often foreign partners are included in the application in order to extend protection abroad for commercial reasons, so their number may not be a good indicator of inventive activity.

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Journal Citation Identity, Journal Citation Image, and Internationalisation are methods for journal evaluation used for an analysis of the Journal of Documentation(JDOC) which is compared to JASIS(T) and the Journal of Information Science(JIS). The set of analyses contributes to portrait a journal and gives a multifaceted picture. For instance, the Journal Citation Image by the New Journal Diffusion Factor tells that JDOC reaches farther out into the scientific community than the JASIS(T) and JIS. Comparing New Journal Diffusion Factor and Journal Impact Factor illustrates how new information has been added by the new indicator. Furthermore, JDOC is characterised by a higher rate of journal diversity in the references and has a lower number of scientific publications. JDOC authors and citers are affiliated Western European institutions at an increasing rate.

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Starting from a characterization of the level of internationalization of SCI journals, based on their authoring scope, the process of internationalization of scientific communication throughout the period 1981–97 is described. The growth of the classes of international journals at the expense of national-oriented ones, appears as a general trend in all disciplines. A kindred measure of internationalization at the country-level is proposed, based on the balance of country-authored publications between national-oriented and international-oriented journals. A typology of countries is sketched. The general trend towards internationalization is also clear at the country level. It can be generally interpreted as a positive evolution, with some exceptions as Russia in the recent period, where it appears together with the output decline, a counterpart of the disappearance of many journals from SCI. Some other examples of shocks with a covariation of internationalization and output are given. Country internationalization indexes also express the sensitivity of the country output indicators to the possible restriction of SCI sample to the international fraction. Considering evolutions of internationalization may be helpful for a comprehensive study of scientific long-term evolutions at the country level.

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Although impact factor and related measurements are the best-known features of scientific journals, other characteristics are of particular interest. The way a journal reflects the internationalized nature of science may be determined by many methods, one of which is based on the distribution of authoring and citing countries. This can be systematically measured either by a comparison of these distributions with averages profiles of a discipline or specialty, or by concentration indexes on the other. This paper focuses on the first approach. As the average profile of science drifts with the level of visibility, stratification by impact level is discussed. In this study, experimental internationalization indexes were calculated on the SCI for journals belonging to Earth&Space and Applied Biology. Convergence of measurements (types of indexes, type of normalization, publication vs citation scope) is adressed. Internationalization indexes may have a variety of applications, including characterization of the scientific publishing market and sampling of the SCI for science indicators.

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The internationalization of ten of China’s English-language scientific journals is analyzed based on their Impact Factor, Total Citation, JCR list rank, international paper proportion and international citation proportion. Six of these journals were financed three times by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSF) between 2001–2006 and four journals maintained a higher impact factor (>1.0) in 2003–2005. The data show that though the total trend of Impact Factor and Total Citation keeps rising, their subject rank has shown a slight decrease. Moreover, the proportion of international papers and international citations do not match their JCR rank and IF: high rank journals have a low proportion of international papers (Chinese Phys Lett, Chinese Phys) and low rank journals have a high Impact Factor (Cell Res, Asian J Androl). This inconsistency may result from their insufficient internationalization either in international paper proportion (less than 20%) or in the amount of high-quality manuscripts, probably caused by their local journal title, circulation and low IF. Suggested means of improving internationalization include encouraging Chinese scientists to cite more home journals when they publish their papers in foreign journals; soliciting the submission of international co-authorships based on the unavailability of pure foreign authorship; cooperating with internationally recognized publishers to utilize their globalization platform; employing overseas scientists to recruit international papers; improving writing style and content, to enable greater accessibility to worldwide readers.

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from other countries grew from 19 to 40%. The current work inserts in this theme of research on international university collaboration, examining the link between the extent of internationalization of scientific product by a researcher and his

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Abstract  

Nanotechnology patenting has grown rapidly in recent years as an increasing number of countries are getting into the global nanotechnology race. Using a refined methodology to identify and classify nanotechnology patents, this paper analyses the changing pattern of internationalization of nanotechnology patenting activities from 1976–2004. We show that the dominance of the G5 countries have declined in recent years, not only in terms of quantity, but also in terms of quality as measured by citation indicators. In addition, using a new approach to classifying the intended areas of commercial applications, we show that nanotechnology patenting initially emphasized instrumentation, but exhibited greater diversification to other application areas in recent years. Significant differences in application area specialization are also found among major nanotechnology nations. Moreover, universities are found to play a significant and increasing role in patenting, particularly in US, UK and Canada.

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Using sample data from the MathSciNet database from 1985 to 2000, we constructed the database and computer searching system of China's international cooperation in publication with other countries (or regions), and applied the international standard measure indexes of cooperation. The paper gives systematic scientific measure and evaluation of international mathematical research, especially for China. It also presents a matrix model of the cooperation network. During the 16 years, the trend toward cooperation of international mathematical research has increased substantially. The number of internationally co-authored papers increased at a speed of 6.99% per year in the word and at 15.91% per year in China.

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Abstract  

This study is a count of the publications of a sample of the major pharmaceutical multinational companies. These firms have been divided into three geopolitical groups: Europe, the United States and Japan. Results obtained show that research activities in this industry have been subjected to some changes between 1965 and 1979. Among these changes is the growing importance of fundamental research, the erosion of the leadership of U.S.-based firms and the growing importance of overseas research.

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