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Kiberbiztonság a koronavírus idején – a COVID–19 nemzetbiztonsági aspektusai

Cyber Security in the Time of the Coronavirus – National Security Aspects of COVID-19

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Tamás Palicz
,
Balázs Bencsik
, and
Miklós Szócska

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19 pandémia az információbiztonság területén új kihívásokat jelentett. A távolról végzett munka különböző formái jelentős mértékben növelték az online tér biztonsági kockázatát. Nőtt a hálózatok nagysága, az adatforgalom, és azon felhasználók száma, akiknek nem volt érdemi tapasztalatuk az online térben. A járvány ideje alatt a kibertérből érkező támadások szektoronként és időszakonként eltérő intenzitásúak voltak, a támadások típusa a phishingtől a malwareken keresztül az információs zavarkeltésig széles spektrumban változott. Számos jelenségnek nemzetbiztonsági vonatkozásai is voltak. Összefoglaló cikkünkben a fenti jelenségek nemzetközi és hazai tapasztalatait összegezzük, különös figyelmet szentelve az egészségügyi rendszernek, illetve a vakcinafejlesztés kibertérből érkező fenyegetéseinek.

Summary. During the COVID-19 pandemic, new challenges emerged in the field of information security and cyber security. Home office, home schooling and distance learning, or even telemedicine hit some organizations unprepared. Security risks in online space have increased significantly: the number of network endpoints and the number of computers, laptops and mobile devices have increased with network data traffic as well as the number of users who had no significant experience in online space. They appeared as a significant risk factor. This has been exacerbated, especially in healthcare, by the extremely high workload, which has made systems highly vulnerable. During the epidemic, attacks from cyberspace varied in intensity from sector to sector and period to period. Statistics from international and national organizations have shown that from the end of the first quarter of 2020, the number of cyber security incidents jumped sharply and then remained high even after a small decline. The types of attacks had an extremely wide range: from phishing through malware to misinformation, almost all types of attacks occurred. Many phenomena also had national security implications. Ransomware virus attacks on health have affected almost all health systems and reached high levels by the end of 2020 in particular. It was during the first period that, in an emergency case, there is thought to be an association between a ransomware virus attack and the death of a patient who was not admitted because of the attack.

In addition to distance measures and the associated increase in cyber threats, the emerging threats related to vaccination, which is central to the fight against the epidemic, should also be highlighted. This period has shed light on how many vulnerabilities there are, from vaccine development through drug trials to delivery to vaccines and the organization of vaccines, that cybercriminals are able to attack. In order to prevent and combat these threats and attacks, and to respond appropriately, complex, multidisciplinary collaborations are needed in which security science has a privileged place. In our review article, we summarize the international and national experiences of the above phenomena, paying special attention to the health care system and the threats coming from cyberspace in vaccine development.

Open access

Kiberbiztonság a járműiparban

Automotive Cybersecurity

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
László Palkovics

Összefoglalás. Jelen cikk célja a járműipar egyes területeit érintő kiberbiztonsági kockázatok vizsgálata. Fentiekkel összhangban a cikk első részében a járműipar kiberbiztonsági szempontból releváns területei kerülnek meghatározásra. Ezt követően megtörténik a 2018. évben rögzített járműipari kibertámadások kockázatalapú értékelő elemzése.

Summary. Nowadays, cybersecurity has a critical impact to our lives. The Internet has also got a substantial role in our days since many people are constantly connected to the Internet (e.g., through online social networks) (Török et al. 2020a) . Besides, numerous personal and individual devices are connected. The growing number of connected devices and cyberspace expansion make our lives easier. However, this affects our privacy, with the potential for unauthorized use of personal information. In summary, life in a networked world carries unknown dangers.

In the future, many new risk factors are expected to occur, which will significantly increase the level of cybersecurity threats. Examining the aspects of the automotive industry, we should mention the summary of Cheng et al., which explores the field’s problems through novel theoretical solutions and related practical considerations. The book pays special attention to vehicle communication and networked systems. This book examines three main scientific directions for 5G-compliant vehicle-to-vehicle communication and cooperative vehicle control: modeling and testing capabilities for vehicle-to-vehicle communication, state-of-the-art technologies related to the physical layer, and MAC design procedures (Cheng et al. 2019) .

Cheng and colleagues (Cheng et al. 2019) examined the communication channels currently applied in the automotive industry or that are expected to be applied soon. Particular attention has been paid to examining the tasks and challenges that need to be addressed in order to support the spread of the connected transport systems in the future. The evaluation focused on the cooperation of connected vehicles. Their study also outlined the most important security risks and challenges associated with new communication solutions.

In the light of the above-mentioned considerations, it can be said that the emergence of connected and autonomous vehicles can make a significant contribution to the positive effects of cyberspace, but can also have a disadvantageous impact on the vulnerability of transport processes.

In line with this, it is important to examine and understand the vulnerabilities of connected and autonomous vehicles, the threats to vehicles. With this knowledge, automotive cybersecurity professionals’ responsibility is to develop appropriate security functions and capabilities for connected and autonomous vehicles and transport systems. This enables the systems to detect, evaluate, and, if necessary, treat different attacks and malicious interventions.

Along with the above objectives, many research studies in the automotive segment have already focused on identifying cybersecurity assessment frameworks for motor vehicles. Among these, it is worth highlighting the projects “HEAling Vulnerabilities to ENhance Software Security and Safety” and “E-safety vehicle intrusion protected applications” (Cheah et al. 2018) .

Open access

Az információbiztonság időszerű kérdései a magyarországi kkv-k körében

Current issues of information security among SMEs in Hungary

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Adrienn Kiss
and
Csaba Kollár

.02.07 8 Kollár Cs., Poór J. (2018) Szervezetek a digitális korban – A digitális munkahely információbiztonsági aspektusa. In: Rajnai Z. (szerk.) Kiberbiztonság – Cyber Security: Tanulmánykötet a

Open access

Trustworthy cybersecurity cooperation of Visegrád countries

A visegrádi országok megbízható kiberbiztonsági együttműködése

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Huu Phuoc Dai Nguyen
and
Zoltán Rajnai

Summary. In Europe, every country has its national security strategy, particularly in the area of cybersecurity. Furthermore, each nation has its own set of circumstances, powers, technological advancements, and rules. Cooperation and a unified approach can prove difficult. As a consequence, this article examines the cooperation of Visegrád countries and other organizations in the field of cybersecurity from the perspective of cybersecurity experts, as well as the official V4 legal framework and national sources to identify the differences and similarities of Visegrád countries’ strategies. Besides, the authors aimed to uncover solutions on how to maintain their power in the same location and develop the strength of the EU and other organizations.

Összefoglalás. Európában minden országnak megvan a maga nemzeti biztonsági stratégiája, különösen a kiberbiztonság területén. Ezenkívül minden nemzetnek megvannak a saját követelményei, technológiai fejlődései és szabályai. Az együttműködés és az egységes megközelítés nehéznek bizonyulhat. Ebből kifolyólag ez a cikk a visegrádi országok (V4) és más szervezetek kiberbiztonsági együttműködését vizsgálja a kiberbiztonsági szakértők szemszögéből, valamint a hivatalos V4 jogi keretek és nemzeti források segítségével azonosítja a visegrádi országok stratégiáinak különbségeit és hasonlóságait. Emellett a szerzők arra törekedtek, hogy megoldásokat találjanak arra, hogyan tartsák fenn jelentőségüket, és erősítsék az EU és más szervezetek erejét.

Open access
Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Péter Ekler
and
Dániel Pásztor

Összefoglalás. A mesterséges intelligencia az elmúlt években hatalmas fejlődésen ment keresztül, melynek köszönhetően ma már rengeteg különböző szakterületen megtalálható valamilyen formában, rengeteg kutatás szerves részévé vált. Ez leginkább az egyre inkább fejlődő tanulóalgoritmusoknak, illetve a Big Data környezetnek köszönhető, mely óriási mennyiségű tanítóadatot képes szolgáltatni.

A cikk célja, hogy összefoglalja a technológia jelenlegi állapotát. Ismertetésre kerül a mesterséges intelligencia történelme, az alkalmazási területek egy nagyobb része, melyek központi eleme a mesterséges intelligencia. Ezek mellett rámutat a mesterséges intelligencia különböző biztonsági réseire, illetve a kiberbiztonság területén való felhasználhatóságra. A cikk a jelenlegi mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazások egy szeletét mutatja be, melyek jól illusztrálják a széles felhasználási területet.

Summary. In the past years artificial intelligence has seen several improvements, which drove its usage to grow in various different areas and became the focus of many researches. This can be attributed to improvements made in the learning algorithms and Big Data techniques, which can provide tremendous amount of training.

The goal of this paper is to summarize the current state of artificial intelligence. We present its history, introduce the terminology used, and show technological areas using artificial intelligence as a core part of their applications. The paper also introduces the security concerns related to artificial intelligence solutions but also highlights how the technology can be used to enhance security in different applications. Finally, we present future opportunities and possible improvements. The paper shows some general artificial intelligence applications that demonstrate the wide range usage of the technology.

Many applications are built around artificial intelligence technologies and there are many services that a developer can use to achieve intelligent behavior. The foundation of different approaches is a well-designed learning algorithm, while the key to every learning algorithm is the quality of the data set that is used during the learning phase. There are applications that focus on image processing like face detection or other gesture detection to identify a person. Other solutions compare signatures while others are for object or plate number detection (for example the automatic parking system of an office building). Artificial intelligence and accurate data handling can be also used for anomaly detection in a real time system. For example, there are ongoing researches for anomaly detection at the ZalaZone autonomous car test field based on the collected sensor data. There are also more general applications like user profiling and automatic content recommendation by using behavior analysis techniques.

However, the artificial intelligence technology also has security risks needed to be eliminated before applying an application publicly. One concern is the generation of fake contents. These must be detected with other algorithms that focus on small but noticeable differences. It is also essential to protect the data which is used by the learning algorithm and protect the logic flow of the solution. Network security can help to protect these applications.

Artificial intelligence can also help strengthen the security of a solution as it is able to detect network anomalies and signs of a security issue. Therefore, the technology is widely used in IT security to prevent different type of attacks.

As different BigData technologies, computational power, and storage capacity increase over time, there is space for improved artificial intelligence solution that can learn from large and real time data sets. The advancements in sensors can also help to give more precise data for different solutions. Finally, advanced natural language processing can help with communication between humans and computer based solutions.

Open access

Kiberbiztonsági kompetencia hálózatok Európában – K+F+I lehetőségek a következő évtizedben

Cybersecurity Competence Network in Europe – R&D&I Opportunities in the Next Decade

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Csaba Krasznay

Összefoglalás. Az elektronikusan tárolt információ biztonsága, általánosabban véve a kiberbiztonság, az egyik legnagyobb kihívás a 21. században. Folyamatosan jelennek meg újabb és újabb fenyegetések, melyekre innovatív és újszerű megoldásokat kell adni. Ezek az innovatív megoldások mindenképpen magukkal hozzák az olyan új típusú technológiák használatát az információbiztonságban, mint például a Nagy Adatokból (Big Data) való építkezés és az erre épülő mesterséges intelligencia. Ennek támogatása érdekében az Európai Unió a 2021 és 2027 közötti időszakban kiemelt fontosságúnak tartja a kiberbiztonsági innovációkat. A tanulmány bemutatja a kiberbiztonsági kompetenciahálózatok tervezetét, illetve ismerteti, hogy milyen kutatás-fejlesztés-innovációs lehetőségek lesznek a következő évtizedben Európában.

Summary. Security of stored digital information and more generally, cybersecurity is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Besides the negative effects of cybercrime, cyberespionage, or other state sponsored activities, like cyberwarfare, our society and economy should face the exposure of infocommunication systems all around us. At the dawn of 4th industrial revolution when the whole world is going to be digitalized and will be surrounded by networked digital devices in homes, cities and industry, new threats are constantly emerging that need to be responded with new innovative solutions. These innovative solutions should include the usage of big data and artificial intelligence built onto it. They should also give a response for the inherited risks of legacy systems that can be found in many critical information infrastructures. Meanwhile, they should protect the digital privacy of citizens by not giving out unnecessary user data which is contradictory with the need of big data and AI mentioned before.

Due to the emerging cybersecurity threats and the virtually non-existence of European cybersecurity market, European Union gives high importance for cybersecurity innovation and will support it between 2021 and 2027. In the proposed budget for this period, approximately 3 billion of euros is expected to be spent to cybersecurity related research. On the one hand, that fund may help European research institutes, enterprises, and startups to appear on the global market, on the other hand this is the only possible way to regain Europe’s digital independence from the United States and China. In alignment with the European security policy, these innovative solutions may also lead to reducing the amount of cybercrime, ensure the resilience of continental critical information infrastructure and can help to establish strong European cyberwarfare capabilities. As Ursula von der Leyden, president of the European Commission said in her op-ed in February 2020, “The point is that Europe’s digital transition must protect and empower citizens, businesses and society as a whole. It has to deliver for people so that they feel the benefits of technology in their lives. To make this happen, Europe needs to have its own digital capacities – be it quantum computing, 5G, cybersecurity or artificial intelligence (AI). These are some of the technologies we have identified as areas for strategic investment, for which EU funding can draw in national and private sector funds.” The study presents the draft of cybersecurity competence networks and describes what R&D&I possibilities will be in Europe in the next decade.

Open access

A csökkentett paraméteres biometrikus hitelesítés jelentősége kórházak kritikus informatikai infrastruktúráiban

The significance of biometric authentication with reduced parameters in critical IT infrastructures at hospitals

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
József Tisóczki

Doktori Iskola 7 Kovács, L. (2020) A kiberbiztonság és a kiberműveletek megjelenése Magyarország új Nemzeti Biztonsági Stratégiájában. Honvédségi Szemle

Open access