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reasons for migrants' decision to move ( Kováts 2014 ) and their dissatisfaction with their homeland ( Siskáné et al. 2017 ; Molnár – Kapitány 2006 ; Sági 2006 ; Stutzer – Frey 2006 ), its impact on certain professions in the domestic labor market

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During the second decade of the twenty-first century, documentation in electronic format has come to form a normal part of the workplace for all professional translators. The aim of this article is to present the results of the acquisition of the instrumental sub-competence, which is based on the use of electronic resources. These results are part of empirical-experimental research carried out by the PACTE group on Translation Competence Acquisition. In this study, the evolution of the acquisition of this sub-competence for five groups of translation students, from the first year of their degree course to their entry into the labour market, was measured using a methodological design that simulates a longitudinal study. The experiment was carried out in 2011 with 130 students on the Translation and Interpreting degree course. Five indicators related to the direct and inverse translation processes are analysed: number of resources, time taken on searches, time taken on searches at each stage, number and variety of searches. These indicators are then correlated with the quality of the final product of the translation process: translation acceptability. The results produced by the translation students are compared with those obtained in the Translation Competence experiment, carried out by the PACTE group in 2005−2006 with 35 professional translators.1

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Deconstructing the diverse meaning behind the common metaphor “Little America”, this paper explores widely disparate ethnic identity conceptions and inter-ethnic relations in two regions of Transylvania, showing them as dependent on the ways in which each region was integrated into changing patterns of global labor. Regional ethnic identity and relations in the Jiu Valley coal producing region and in the mixed agro-industrial Fǎgǎraş zone vary greatly. In the former, ethnic identity was downplayed and inter-ethnic relations always kept on an even keel owing to the particular process of regional settlement and the common integration of the region’s ethnic groups into the hard coal industry that dominated the Valley from the middle of the 18th century. In the latter region, ethnic relations were frequently tense due to a highly discrete ethnic-based division of labor and organization of political hierarchy. Despite these differences, citizens of each region expressed their ethnic dynamic through use of the “Little America” metaphor. However, in the Jiu Valley this referred to alleged ethnic peace of cooperating national groups, while in Fǎgǎraş this notion referred to the dream of struggling for social mobility and differentiation. The paper thus shows how such basic ethnic conceptions, shaped by the treatment of regional labor in successive phases of the global economy, influence a wide range of differing attitudes toward diverse social and political processes, including socialist development policies and the modern global labor market.

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The sphere of analysis in this article includes settlements in the north of Hungary. They are located in the north of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, in the area that attracted a labor force to the former Metallurgical Works of Ózd. The most considerable stratification of society of the rural and poor noble population that lived in the settlements neighboring Ózd, which was inhabited since the Middle Ages, happened when in the former industrial town the demand for the labor force of the gradually expanding works extended and changed the society of the neighboring villages. After 1945, the process continued, and it attracted the inhabitants of the settlements located within a 50 kilometer radius to take part in industrial employment. Metallurgy, which offered a secure, permanent living as well as mining, which was typical of the region, formed laborers and miners from the native peasants living close to migrating workers and sometimes created dynasties of workers through several generations. The employment of women came to the fore in time: apart from housekeeping, which was demanding, the girls and mothers could do heavy manual work, so they appeared on the labor market as earners as well.

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Abstract

The investigation of the integration of East-Central European nurses into global labour market excluded the possible analysis of a spatially well definable group at the beginning of the research project; therefore the application of a different method became necessary. These women move between not only home and a new place of residence abroad, but, depending on job opportunities and various life situations, live in a number of countries, changing sites. Consequently, it has seemed adequate to focus on the specific features of the subject matter and to choose sites of research accordingly.

For the study of migration it is a significant contribution of multi-sited ethnography, beyond the pragmatic novelty of methodology, i.e. the multiplication of sites, that transgressing the national and international interpretive framework, it opens up transnational dimension and draws attention to the fact that new entities (e. g. networks and sites) may come into being that rewrite the topography of migration. This method requires flexibility, creativity and shifts of technology. But how can this new type of information be managed? This is the level where it is worth stepping over from multiple fields to multiple sites, and search for the connection between the sites instead of the comparability of fields. The author of the article provides an interpretive framework for the understanding of participation of East-Central European women in global catering sector at various points of the phenomenon and it contributes to the exploration of the inner dynamics and logics.

In course of the ever-expanding field research integrating new sites it may become clear that the key to understand the phenomenon is not to be detected in locally available contexts, but, rather, in the study of the various aspects of the phenomenon. Data got into context due to glancing at the process at several sites. The sites formed context for one another to deepen understanding.

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line with this finding, there is wide consensus to support structural explanations of poverty (such as social injustice or problems regarding the labor market) in Finland ( Niemelä 2008 ). In Angol-Saxon tradition, however, development of the residual

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agrarian managers continues to determine the daily functioning of the two agricultural associations, and through them the local labor market and agricultural production: they are both owners and employees of the institutions they have created and now

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, education, health, political participation, etc.) — took place partly during the socialist era, when women's presence on the labor market increased significantly ( Nagy 2014 ; Nagy – Fodor 2015 ). However, with the emergence of the dual-earner family

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population belonged to the 65–74 age group and 4.7 percent to the group over 75 years of age ( Eurostat 2019b ). The explanation for the aging of Romanian society lies in the declining number of births and a robust international labor market

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are reported. Based on the data obtained the paper encourages further research into the training and development needs of refugee doctors, and emphasises that refugee doctors wishing to integrate into the UK labour market should more extensively

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