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has been under 4% since the first quarter of 2017 in Hungary, which practically means full employment. The Hungarian labour market is characterised more by the lack of workforce now [ 3 ], which is a serious problem that negatively impacts our economic

Open access

A mesterséges intelligencia az oktatásban: kihívások és lehetőségek

Artificial Intelligence in education: Challenges and perspectives

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Ferenc Dietz

-struggle-to-hold-pencils-due-to-too-much-tech-doctors-say 2019.08.12. How will AI impact the Hungarian labour market? PricewaterhouseCoopers Magyarország Kft. https://www.pwc.com/hu/en/publications/assets/How-will-AI-impact-the-Hungarian-labour-market

Open access

Based Approach to the Role of Services Improving Employability . In: Csernovitz , A. , Szegedi , E. (eds), Labour Market . [8]. Lisznyai , S. , Ritoók , M. , Vajda , Zs. ( 2009

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Hazai népesedési folyamatok az elmúlt évtizedben

Population trends in Hungary in the last decade with an outlook

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Zsolt Spéder
,
Lajos Bálint
,
Veronika Horváth
,
Balázs Kapitány
, and
Csilla Obádovics

Összefoglalás.

Elemzésünk célja, hogy bemutassuk azokat a népesedési folyamatokat, amelyek az elmúlt évtizedben a népesség jelentős fogyását okozzák, és aminek eredményeként a jövőbeli népesedési folyamatok alakulnak. Vizsgálatainkat és értelmezéseinket a három népesedési komponens, a termékenység, halandóság, illetve a nemzetközi vándorlás mentén végezzük. Az elemzésből kiderül, hogy évszázadunk második évtizedében a népességfogyás legfőbb tényezője a halálozási veszteség volt, de a népességfogyást a nemzetközi vándorlás negatív egyenlege is érdemben növelte. A születések és a halálozások száma közötti különbség 1981 óta fennáll; a természetes fogyás előbb a születésszám csökkenése, majd az évtized végén a Covid–19 járvány miatt nőtt. A negatív vándorlási egyenleget főképpen a német és az osztrák munkaerőpiaci nyitás növelte meg. A jelenlegi korszerkezetet figyelembe véve az előreszámítások a népesség további csökkenését vetítik előre.

Summary.

The aim of our analysis is to present the population trends that have caused the significant population decline in the last decade in Hungary and that will determine the future Hungarian population in terms of numbers and composition. Our analyses and interpretations are carried out along the three population components: fertility, mortality, emigration and immigration. The analysis reveals that in the second decade of our century, the main factor of population decline was mortality loss, but that the negative balance of international migration also contributed significantly to population decline.

Natural reproduction (births minus deaths) has been negative in Hungary since 1981. In the period following the change of regime, natural increase increased from -1.9 per thousand births in 1990 to -4.1 per thousand in 2003, due to a decline in the birth rate. In the decade between 2010 and 2020, it ranged between -3.5 and -4.1, reaching -6.4 per thousand in the second year of the Covid-19 (2022).

The number of birth, which although fluctuated somewhat between 2010 and 2020, but was essentially stagnating, is the result of two opposite processes. On the one hand, the propensity to have children, measured by the total fertility rate, has been steadily increasing. On the other hand, the number of women of childbearing age, including women aged 20-39 who are of prime childbearing age, has been steadily declining.

An important feature of the pre-pandemic period was the slowdown in mortality improvement. The negative trend was observed in both EU countries and in our country, affecting both men and women. The age-specific look highlighted slowdown among middle-aged (30-59 years) man and women, and the improvement in mortality has declined also among younger elderly people (60-79 years). The stagnation in the number of deaths in Hungary was both a consequence of an ageing age structure and a reduction in the improvement in life expectancy. This stagnation was replaced by a rapid increase in mortality with the emergence of the Covid-19 epidemic. Our analysis revealed that during the pandemic the mortality risk for men was higher than that for women, and surprisingly the slope of the age-specific mortality risks were very similar to age-specific mortality risks before the epidemic.

Hungary’s net migration was positive for a long time after the regime change, then turned negative shortly before the decade under review, with the number of people leaving the country exceeding the number of people arriving. The main reason that after the opening of the Austrian and German labour markets in 2011, outmigration, especially labour emigration rapidly increase among Hungarians according to ‘mirror statistics’. Noteworthy, Hungarian outmigration is among the lowest compared to the new EU states. A new development is that significant “return migration” trends can be observed at the end of the decade.

At the end, as a summary, three population scenarios are presented, the most likely baseline scenario, the high fertility scenario and the zero net migration scenario. The baseline scenario shows that by 2050 the population size will fall to 8.5 million, which corresponds to a 13% decline over roughly three decades. The age structure will also change radically; while in 2019 the share of people aged 65 and over is 14.5%, in 2050 it will be 27.5%, i.e. more than a quarter of the population will be aged 65 and over.

Open access

A COVID–19 járvány hatása a leghátrányosabb helyzetű településeken élők mindennapjaira: ahogy a hátrányos helyzetűek és a szociális szolgáltatásokat nyújtók látják

The effects of Covid-19 on the everyday life of people living in the most disadvantaged areas: as they and professionals in the social service sector see

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Beáta Dávid
,
Tünde Szabó
,
Éva Huszti
, and
István Bukovics

Összefoglaló. Jelen tanulmányunk a biztonság társadalmi aspektusait egy speciális csoport, a mélyszegénységben élő családok és az őket segítő szakemberek körében vizsgálja a COVID–19 idején. Kvalitatív módszerrel (csoportos és egyéni interjúk) a makro- (szociális támogatórendszer) és a mikrotársadalmi biztonság dimenziók összefüggését, valamint a mikroszintű biztonság dimenziók közti viszonyokat elemezzük. Ez utóbbi dimenziók leírásánál a kisgyermekes családok munkaerőpiaci és ezzel együtt anyagi helyzetére, mentális egészségi állapotukra, valamint az oktatási helyzet bemutatására koncentrálunk. Az egyes témák leírásánál az érintett családok és az őket segítő szakemberek helyzetértékelése is megjelenik a velük készített interjúk elemzése alapján.

Summary. This study examines the social aspects of security among a specific group of families living in extreme poverty and the professionals helping them during Covid-19. Using a qualitative method (group and individual interviews), we analyse the relationship between macro (social support system) and micro social dimensions of security, as well as the linkages between micro-level dimensions of security. In describing the latter dimensions, we will focus on the labour market situation of families with young children, and hence on their financial situation, their mental health situation and their educational situation. The description of each theme also includes an assessment of the situation of the families concerned and the professionals who help them, based on an analysis of the interviews conducted with them. In the first phase of the study, social problems were identified on the basis of interviews with experts. In the second phase, individual interviews were conducted with the people concerned, the disadvantaged. 11 interviews were conducted with experts: 5 individual and 6 group interviews. In the second phase, 50 disadvantaged people were interviewed individually.

In general, it can be concluded that the daily life of people living in disadvantaged areas has been further affected by the pandemic. The labour market situation has changed and, in this context, the financial situation of the interviewees has further deteriorated. Single-parent families were particularly affected by these problems. The transition to online education has created difficulties for families, children, and teachers and additional tasks for social workers. In many places, the lack of accessible services, the low availability of equipment and low level of digital literacy have prevented distance learning from taking place, and the negative consequences for the population under study can only be predicted. The epidemic has affected the population not only financially but also mentally. The reduction in social life has led to an increase in domestic violence. In some areas, the number of births in disadvantaged families has increased, especially among minors. In fact, the epidemic has brought to the surface the problems that disadvantaged people face on a daily basis: unemployment and deprivation, compounded by educational underachievement. The workload of those working in the social field has also become more visible: a shortage of staff and a lack of resources. At the same time, the enormous potential and flexibility of the current human resources have been revealed.

Open access

.2 percent decrease in DESI values. Another study by [ 33 ] explored the relationship between DESI dimensions and labor market indicators. In the thesis, the 2018 DESI dimensions, positive (personal earnings, employment rate) and negative (labor market

Open access

(only 8) people were over 65, while the under 18 were represented by 98 people. Finally, we analysed the sample from the point of view of education, labour market position and financial situation. The results showed that the majority of customers had

Open access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
Norbert Novák
,
Péter Miklós Kőmíves
,
Mónika Harangi-Rákos
, and
Károly Pető

. Training of the rural population, and in particular training along career paths available in the countryside is important in terms of addressing the challenges of rural areas. As a result of up-to-date knowledge, the labour market position of individuals

Open access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
Éva Bácsné Bába
,
György Norbert Szabados
,
Szabolcs Gergely Orbán
,
Zoltán Bács
,
Renátó Balogh
, and
Sándor Kovács

(regulators, labour market, competitors, suppliers, customers) and the elements of the general environment (political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legal) that indirectly affect it. Therefore, the management of the company must always

Open access

actors, Pécs-Baranya Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PBCCI)) play an important role in the reconstruction of the city. However, the data also show that while the university plays a significant role in educating the labor market, 58.32% of students come

Open access