The calculation of Hirsch's h-index is a detail-ignoring way, therefore, single h-index could not reflect the difference of time spans for scientists to accumulate their papers and citations. In this study
the h-index sequence and the h-index matrix are constructed, which complement the absent details of single h-index, reveal different increasing manner and the increasing mechanism of the h-index, and make the scientists at different scientific age comparable.
The paper examines the qualitative as well as quantitative indicators for the assessment of the scientific publication activities of 32 countries, with special attention to the Zipf-Pareto distribution of those indicators. Also discussed is the linear relationship between the number of first authors of scientific papers in a given country and the number of papers it produced. Based on these discussions, a comprehensive indicator combining the merits of quantitative and qualitative indicators is suggested. The ranking of the 32 countries by this indicator is found to follow also Zipf-Pareto distribution.
During the period 1985–1995 Daniel Koshland was Editor-in-Chief of the journal Science. As such he exerted a huge influence on all aspects related to content and lay-out of the journal. This study compares Science’s bibliometric characteristics between three periods: a pre-Koshland (1975–1984) period, the Koshland period (1985–1995)
and the post-Koshland period (1996–2006). The distributions of document types, the country/territory and institutional distribution
of authors, co-authorship data and disciplinary impact measured by subject categories of citations are studied. These bibliometric
characteristics unveil some of the changes the journal went through under the leadership of Daniel Koshland.
On the basis of the measured frequency distribution of China"s inter-regional co-authored papers covered by the Chinese Science Citation Database, this paper shows the pattern of China"s inter-regional research collaboration (IRRC), and analyzes how the collaborative pattern was formed. A new method is used to calculate the expected value matrix based on an observed value matrix of IRRC, which is asymmetric and has no diagonal elements. The results fall into three groups. 1) Regional scientific productivity affects both the collaborative preference and ranking of authors" name; 2) geographical proximity is an important factor determining the pattern of IRRC; 3) when using Salton"s measure, regional mean collaborative strength increases as the regional productivity increases, and as the distance between two regions decreases.
Authors:Liming Liang, Lixin Chen, Yishan Wu, and Junpeng Yuan
In this paper the role of Chinese universities in enterprise–university research collaboration is investigated. This study focuses on a special aspect of the collaboration—co-authored articles. The two cases are analyzed: (1) research collaboration between Baosteel Group Corporation and Chinese universities; (2) research collaboration between China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation and Chinese universities. The co-authorship data over the period 1998–2007 were searched from CNKI database, the largest Chinese publication and citation database. The main findings are as follows: the number of articles co-authored by enterprise and university scientists has been increasing rapidly; the share of co-authored articles has been growing; the authors from universities are more possible to be the first authors; as a whole, enterprise–university co-authored articles tend to receive more citations and get downloaded more frequently; a mathematical orientation emerges in the enterprise–university articles. To reveal and describe such a trend the methods of keywords analysis and co-occurrence analysis are applied. The Chinese government's policy instruments and substantial supports for pushing and improving enterprise–university research collaboration are introduced and analyzed.
Authors:Hildrun Kretschmer, Liang Liming, and Ramesh Kundra
The growing importance of collaboration in research and the still underdeveloped state-of-the-art of research on collaboration
have encouraged scientists from16 countries to establish a global interdisciplinary research network under the title “Collaboration
in Science and in Technology” (COLLNET)with Berlin as its virtual centre which has been set up on January 1st, 2000.The network
is to comprise the prominent scientists, who work at present mostly in the field of quantitative science studies. The intention
is to work together in co-operation both on theoretical and applied aspects.
Authors:S. Sangam, Liang Liming, and Gireesh Ganjihal
The present paper describes the application of growth models as suggested by Egghe and Ravichadra Rao (Scientometrics 25:5–46,
1992). The scope of the paper is limited to study the growth and dynamics of Indian and Chinese publications in the field
of liquid crystals research (1997–2006).
Authors:Liming Liang, Ronald Rousseau, and Fei Shi
The rhythm of science may be compared to the rhythm of music. The R-indicator studied in this article is a complex indicator, trying to reflect part of this rhythm. The R-indicator interweaves publication and citation data over a long period. In this way R-sequences can be used to describe the evolutionary rhythm of science considered in a novel way. As an example the R-sequence of the journal Science from 1945 on is calculated.
Authors:Liming Liang, Junwan Liu, and Ronald Rousseau
Studying three Chinese major universities of different type, this article attempts to validate earlier results related to
authors' name order in papers co-authored by graduate candidates and their supervisors. Candidates for the doctoral degree
as well as the master's degree are considered. Defining the g-ratio as the fraction of co-authored publications where the
graduate student's name precedes that of the supervisor's we obtain the following results. 1) Generally, master's level g-ratios
are smaller than the corresponding doctoral level g-ratios. 2) The three doctoral g-ratio time series have a common characteristic:
they tend to a limiting target value of somewhat more than 80%. The master's time series of the three universities extend
themselves in parallel with the doctoral time series. 3) The g-ratio of collaborative papers related to the dissertation is
higher than the g-ratio of collaborative papers not related to the dissertation. This is true on the doctoral level as well
as on the master's level. 4) Different disciplines have different g-ratios, representing disciplinary customs in graduate
candidate-supervisor collaboration, the highest g-ratio in the doctoral case occurring in biology (except for Tsinghua University
that does not offer courses in biology). 5) There exist only small differences between the g-ratios of different kinds of
universities. 6) In recent years, the same candidate-supervisor collaboration patterns exist in international publications
as in domestic ones. The fact that the doctoral g-ratios of all three universities are as high as 80% reflects a universal
regularity in the structure of scientific collaboration between doctoral candidates and their supervisors in China.
Authors:Hildrun Kretschmer, Liang Liming, and Ramesh Kundra
The collaboration model of Kretschmer was applied to the co-authorshipnetwork of Indian medicine with the aim of being able to observe changes instructure over
a period of 30 years. The idea of Liang, on her “Distributionof Major Scientific and Cultural Achievements in Terms of Age” was putin relation to the collaboration
model by Kretschmer.