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Fatty acid hydroperoxide-producing lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroperoxide-degrading glutathione peroxidase (GPOX) enzyme activities were studied in leaves of virus resistant Xanthi-nc and susceptible Samsun-nn tobacco cultivars after inoculation with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Total LOX activity showed a maximum at pH 5.5 in cell-free extracts of uninfected leaves. LOX activity markedly increased at this pH after TMV inoculation, but a substantial induction was detected also in the basic pH range with an emerging peak around pH = 8.5. TMV-elicited LOX induction was weaker and appeared later in Samsun-nn than in Xanthi-nc leaves. GPOX activity was also substantially induced by TMV infection. However, this induction appeared only 4 days post-inoculation in resistant Xanthi-nc plants in tissues surrounding the localized necrotic lesions. In contrast, GPOX activity did not change in TMV-inoculated, susceptible Samsun-nn leaves. Several glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes also display GPOX activity. The expression of a tau class GST gene was markedly induced by TMV inoculation in Xanthi-nc leaves. This tobacco GST gene was partially cloned and sequenced.

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Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation temperature and time were investigated on broccoli florets at different blanching treatments. In addition, retention of nutritional components,which reduced POD and LOX activities, was compared. LOX inactivation required 14 min at 70 °C, 6 min at 80 °C, 11/2 min at 90 °C, 1 min at 100 °C water blanching and 1 min for steam blanching, 2 min in microwave without water and 6 min with microwave and water. The highest nutritional content of broccoli was evaluated in microwave blanching without water by comparison to all treatments. The decline of nitrate and nitrite value of broccoli was higher under longer time blanching than under higher temperature blanching.

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, J. C. ( 2012 ) Transgenic expression of dual positional maize lipoxygenase-1 leads to the regulation of defense-related signaling molecules and activation of the antioxidative enzyme system in rice . Plant Sci. 185- 186 , 238 – 245

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. Differential induction of lipoxygenase isoforms in wheat upon treatment with rust fungus elicitor, chitin oligosaccharides, chitosan and methyl jasmonate. Plant Physiol. 114 :679–685. Grambow H

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1 6 Borrelli, G.M., Troccoli, A., Di Fonzo, N., Fares, C. 1999. Durum wheat lipoxygenase activity and other parameters that affect pasta color. Cereal Chem. 76 :335

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Cicero, A. F., Derosa, G., Gaddi, A. (2005) Combined lipoxygenase/cyclo-oxygenase inhibition in the elderly: the example of licofelone. Drugs Aging 225, 393–403. Gaddi A. Combined

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
P. Motallebi
,
S. Tonti
,
V. Niknam
,
H. Ebrahimzadeh
,
A. Pisi
,
P. Nipoti
,
M. Hashemi
, and
A. Prodi

Fusarium culmorum is a soilborne fungal pathogen, agent of crown and root rot disease (FCRR), responsible of major economic losses in wheat plants. This host—pathogen interaction, following methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application at the beginning of the necrotrophic stage of infection, has not been previously studied at molecular level. In this study, using real-time quantitative PCR, the emerging role of MeJA in the basal resistance of two bread wheat cultivars against F. culmorum has been investigated. MeJA treatment was dispensed 6 hours after pathogen inoculation (6 hai) to detect the defense response at the beginning of the necrotrophic stage. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP709C1) genes and of some pathogenesis related (PR) genes, including PR3, PR4 and PR9, was examined in both root and crown tissues of the susceptible wheat cultivar Falat and the tolerant cultivar Sumai3. The pathogen responsive defense genes were induced in both cultivars, with a higher level of induction in Sumai3 than in Falat. MeJA treatment reduced the symptoms in cv Falat, whereas no significant effects have been detected in cv Sumai3. In fact, MeJA treatment caused a striking difference in defense gene induction. The genetic change was present in root and crown tissues of both wheat cultivars, demonstrating a systemic signaling pathway. The chemically induced protection correlated with induction of the F. culmorum-responsive genes supports a possible role of jasmonate signaling in regulating basal resistance in wheat–F. culmorum interaction.

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. Laus , M.N. , Soccio , M. , Pastore , D. 2013 . Evaluation of synergistic interactions of antioxidants from plant foods by a new method using soybean lipoxygenase . J. Food Nutr. Res. 52 : 256 – 260

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-methyltetradecanoic acid, is associated with inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Prostate 55, 281–291. Newman R. A. Inhibition of proliferation of PC3 cells by the branched-chain fatty acid, 12

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Porat, R., Reiss, N., Atzorn, R., Halevy, A. H., Borochov, A. (1995) Examination of the possible involvement of lipoxygenase and jasmonates in pollination-induced senescence of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium orchid flowers. Physiol. Plantarum 94 , 205

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