Authors:Jesus Molina, Gyula Vatai, Eszter Fogarassy, and Erika Bekassy-Molnar
The problem of wastewater with high content of salt is a frequent problem for the environmental authorities, because the existing municipal and industrial wastewater treatments are incapable to remove effectively inorganic compounds. In this paper an attempt was made to report new results with reverse osmosis (RO) and nano-filtration (NF) membranes to remove salts from fermentation wastewater.The basic target of the experiments was to find an industrial membrane, which can separate salts from fermentation wastewater with a high efficiency and the concentration of the clean water should satisfy the environmental regulation: salt concentration ≤ 2500 mg/L and COD concentration ≤ 1200 mgO
/L. RO process exhibited good salt rejection and effective removal of organics. The other aim of this study was to model the osmotic pressure and permeate flux in the wastewater using basic expressions, like van’t Hoff law and Rautenbach equations. The combination of the above models with experiment based constants gave a good tool for modeling salty wastewater.
Adsorption of radium was studied on glass and polyethylene from aqueous solutions containing 8–40 pg·dm–3224Ra and on membrane filters, glass and polyethylene bottles from waste and river waters containing 2–170 pg·dm–3226Ra. The adsorption from aqueous solutions was determined as a function of pH and composition of the solutions and interpreted as due to ion exchange of Ra2+ ions for counter ions in the electric double layer on glass and polyethylene or due to chemisorption of RaSO4 (RaCO3) ion pairs on glass. Borosilicate glass adsorbed radium substantially more than polyethylene. The adsorption of dissolved forms of radium from the waste and river waters during storage and membrane filtration of the waters was negligible, but a significant loss of particulate forms of radium was sometimes observed during the storage. It has been recommended to separate dissolved and particulate forms of radium soon after the sampling and to prefer polyethylene to glass as container material for storage of dissolved forms of radium.
Authors:Péter Bor, József Csanádi, Gábor Veréb, Sándor Beszédes, Zita Šereš, Zsuzsanna László, Cecilia Hodúr, and Szabolcs Kertész
, L. H. , Zhu , Z. , Wan , Y. , Jaffrin , M. Y. ( 2012 ) Treatment of dairy effluent by shear-enhanced membranefiltration: The role of foulants . Separation and Purification Technology , 96 : 194 – 203
Authors:Manrong Tan, Yongsheng Ren, Dan Yan, Xianghong Meng, Longhu Chen, Lingling Qiu, Yan Yan, Jianyu Li, and Xiaohe Xiao
preparations. Provisions of the current pharmacopoeia sterility test methods include membranefiltration and direct inoculation [ 1 ], which also can effectively sterility test of samples. However, the methods are limited by certain disadvantages: low
Authors:Alexandre Prado, Aline Moura, Rômulo Andrade, Igor Pescara, Valéria Ferreira, Elaine Faria, Augusto de Oliveira, Esmeralda Okino, and Luiz Zara
waters [ 7 ]. These methods are based on chemical precipitation, cementation, exchange resins, membranefiltration and new modified adsorbents [ 8 – 11 ]. Alternative low-cost adsorbents such as chitosan, clays or certain waste products from industrial