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The dynamic and antibiotic resistance of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , isolated by standard membrane filtration methods from suburban and rural untreated groundwater supplies, were scrutinized in this study. The annual average densities of these bacteria were respectively 1891 colony forming units (c.f.u.)/100 mL, 1246 c.f.u./100 mL and 206 c.f.u./100 mL. The total occurrence of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci during the period of study was 94%. Detectable P. aeruginosa was present in 88% of samples. A total of 320 faecal coliforms, 338 faecal streptococci and 208 P. aeruginosa strains, were examined for their resistance to eighteen antibiotics. The overall resistance (resistance to at least one antibiotic) of these bacteria was 100%. The multiresistance (resistance to at least two antibiotics) of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci was 94%, whereas 100% of P. aeruginosa strains were multiresistant. The monoresistance (resistance to one antibiotic) of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci strains was 5%, but the monoresistance was not expressed among P. aeruginosa strains. Faecal coliforms were most commonly resistant towards sulfamethoxazole (91%), cephalothin (88%) and ampicillin (84%). Faecal streptococci isolates were resistant to polymyxin (87%), to sulfamethoxazole (86%) and to nalidixic acid (85%). The highest prevalence of resistance was noted among P. aeruginosa isolates. More than 90% of these strains were resistant to cephalothin (95%), cephotaxim (93%) and polymyxin (92%). The occurrence of faecal pollution bacteria and the presence of high levels of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in rural and suburban groundwaters used by local populations, without previous treatment, may have important public health implications.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Zsófia Barna, Mihály Kádár, Emese Kálmán, Eszter Róka, Anita Sch. Szax, and Márta Vargha

— Detection and enumeration of Legionella — Part 2: Direct membrane filtration method for waters with low bacterial counts . Geneva, Switzerland : International Standard Organization . 29

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isolation and biochemical tests Bacterial isolation was conducted using the EPA Method 1605 ( USEPA, 2001 ). Water samples were pre-filtered, and 500 mL of them were subjected to membrane filtration using 0.45-µm nitrocellulose membranes (Sartorius Stedim

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Microbial 1996 62 3997 4002 Grant, M. A.: A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous

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