., 2008; Fregni et al., 2008; Sauvaget et al., 2015 ). Positron emission tomography (PET) has unique potential for assessing cerebral metabolism, neuroreceptor occupancy, and neurotransmitter binding in vivo. In particular, mapping uptake of 18 F-fluoro-2
) identified IM as the most favorable route of administration of 5-MeO-DMT for the following reasons; it avoids first pass metabolism, has high bioavailability, precise control of dosage, and evokes a gentle onset with slightly longer duration of effects. This
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variants mean that up to 10% of Caucasians lack the gene to synthesise the enzyme to metabolise ibogaine ( Meyer, Skoda, & Zanger, 1990 ). This can result in these individuals having plasma levels that double the levels of those with normal p450 metabolism
of decarboxylated or partially carboxylated proteins ( Teles, Fukuda, & Feder, 2012 ). The absorption through the nasal mucosa probably does not trigger this type of metabolism and/or the amount of these compounds are not capable of promoting the
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