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structure and mechanical properties of milk fat. Food Res. Int. , 3 , 971–981. Marangoni A.G. Effect of cooling rate on the structure and mechanical properties of milk fat

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challenging issue. The traditional fats for sugar confectionaries are cocoa butter, milk fat and various vegetable oils such as coconut oil. Coconut fat is a complex mixture of triglycerides with carbon numbers 8 to 18 (C8–C18). It has a sharp melting profile

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Darnay, A. Tóth, B. Salamon, K. Papik, G. Oros, G. Jónás, K. Horti, K. Koncz, and L. Friedrich

The aim of this study was to show how microbial transglutaminase (mTG) can be used as an effective texture-modifier for two popular Hungarian products: Trappist cheese and frankfurter. In both cases we investigated how components of these products, milkfat in cheese and phosphate in frankfurter, can be substituted by mTG. Therefore, Trappist cheese samples were produced from cow milk of 2.8%, 3.5%, and 5% milk fat. The effect of ripening was evaluated with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and sensory evaluation (scoring test, 10 trained panellists). Springiness and cohesiveness values were significantly higher by enzyme-treated semi-hard cheese samples at lower milk fat levels. Sensory evaluation showed that the enzyme-treatment led to higher scores by cheese samples made from cow milk of 3.5% and 5% milk fat. Frankfurter was made with 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and partly enzyme-treated with 0.2% commercial mTG enzyme preparation. Our results showed that mTG is able to significantly improve hardness and crunchiness by frankfurters made with 0.1% phosphate addition. Our sensory evaluation suggests that mTG and phosphate should be applied in combination in order to have a final product with recognisably more homogeneous texture.

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Aimi, N. (2001): Effect of tempering on physical properties of shortenings based on binary blends of palm oil and anhydrous milk fat during storage. -in: Widlak, N., Hartel, R.W. & Narine, S

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, C. , ANTONA , C. , ROBERT , B. , LOPEZ , C. , ARMAND , M. ( 2014 ): The size and interfacial composition of milk fat globules are key factors controlling triglycerides bioavailability in simulated human gastro-duodenal digestion . Food

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Kumar, M.V. , Sambaiah, K. & Lokesh, B.R. (2000): Hypocholesterolemic effect of anhydrous milk fat ghee is mediated by increasing the secretion of biliary lipids. J. Nutr. Biochem. , 11 , 69

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, J. , Dankow , A. , Gut , A. & Pikul , J. ( 2001 ): Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of sheep and goat milk fat during lactation . Arch. Tierzucht. , 44 , 299 – 308 .

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The present investigation was undertaken to optimize the level of ingredients (milk fat, sugar, and mango pulp) for functional dairy beverage using Response Surface Methodology. Central Composite Rotatable Design with milk fat (%), sugar (%), and mango pulp (var. Chaunsa, %) as independent variables produced 20 different combinations that were used to investigate the effect on viscosity (cP), antioxidant activity, and overall acceptability. The response surface three dimensional graphs were plotted as a function of two variables to show the effect of level of ingredients on physico-chemical and sensory properties of the beverage. Significant correlation models were established with the coefficient of correlation (R2) greater than 0.8. An optimization of process variables was attempted for maximum antioxidant activity and overall acceptability. ANOVA tables revealed that increase in fat and sugar levels lowered the antioxidant activity, while enhancement of mango pulp significantly increased both antioxidant activity and overall acceptability of the beverage. The optimized levels of ingredients were 0.5% milk fat, 6.0% sugar and 30% mango pulp.

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Cows of different breeds with high lifetime production were analysed in order to choose the best producers for embryo donors. The cows were ranked based on their milk protein yield, and a rank correlation was calculated between milk and protein yield and age. The probability of a correlation breaker was also investigated. In the Swiss Simmental breed it was found that the lower the protein production, the lower the correlation. This tendency was characteristic for the Brown Swiss population, too. In the first Osnabrück Holstein subpopulation a close correlation (0.74) was found, but not in the other two. The ratio of correlation breakers in the three subpopulations was 12.5%, 33.3% and 56.3%. In populations of German Black & White and Red & White the correlation was very close (0.9 and 0.84, respectively). The ratio of correlation breakers was 26.7% and 22.2%. In the Hungarian Holstein population the correlation was weak (0.29), so the ratio of correlation breakers was relatively high. The value of the rank correlation coefficient between the milk fat and milk quantity of the top cows of the Jersey breed was 0.26, indicating a weak correlation. The ratio of correlation breakers was 36.4%.

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The comparative efficacy of 0.4% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.3% sodium alginate (SA) was evaluated as fat replacer in low-fat (<0.5% milk fat) mozzarella pre-cheese on the basis of physico-chemical, processing, textural, and colour profile, nutritional and sensory attributes. High-fat mozzarella cheese (prepared from milk with 6.0% fat) was taken as control (FFMC), whereas low-fat mozzarella cheese (prepared from milk with <0.5% fat) without any fat replacer (LFMC) taken as negative control. The per cent yield was lower in low fat cheese with CMC (LFMC-CMC), whereas in low fat cheese with SA (LFMC-SA) it was comparable with FFMC. The moisture and protein contents were higher (P<0.05) in low-fat mozzarella cheese (LFMC-CMC, LFMC-SA) than in FFMC. The energy content in LFMC-CMC and LFMC-SA was 44 percent lower than in FFMC. The meltability decreased, whereas melt time increased in LFMC-CMC and LFMC-SA compared to FFMC. The processing and nutritional attributes were comparable in both treatments. Hardness increased, whereas chewiness decreased in low-fat cheese. However, type of fat replacer did not affect hardness of the product. Gumminess was higher (P<0.05) in LFMC-CMC than in LFMC-SA. The sensory panellists rated LFMC-SA better for flavour and overall acceptability than LFMC-CMC. The appearance, texture, and juiciness were comparable in low-fat and high-fat mozzarella cheese. Results indicated that 0.3 per cent SA can be successfully used for processing of low-fat cheese.

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