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# On the Lipschitz perturbation of monotonic functions

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: Zita Makó and Zsolt Páles

## Summary

A real valued function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $f$ \end{document} defined on a real interval \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $I$ \end{document} is called \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d$ \end{document} -Lipschitz if it satisfies \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $|\ell(x)- \ell(y)| \le d(x,y)$ \end{document} for \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\ x,y\in I$ \end{document}. In this paper, we investigate when a function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p: I \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} can be decomposed in the form \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p=q+ \ell$ \end{document}, where \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $q$ \end{document} is increasing and \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\ell$ \end{document} is \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d$ \end{document}-Lipschitz. In the general case when \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d: I^{2} \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} is an arbitrary semimetric, a function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p: I \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} can be written in the form \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p=q+ \ell$ \end{document} if and only if
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\sum_{i=1}^{n}{\big(p(s_{i})-p(t_{i})-d(t_{i},s_{i}) \big)^{+}} \le \sum_{j=1}^{m}{\big(p(v_{j})-p(u_{j})+d(u_{j},v_{j}) \big)}$$ \end{document}
is fulfilled for all real numbers \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $t_{1}<s_{1}, \dots, t_{n}<s_{n}$ \end{document} and \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $u_{1}<v_{1}, \dots, u_{m}<v_{m}$ \end{document} in \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $I$ \end{document} satisfying the condition
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\sum_{i=1}^{n} 1_{\left]t_i,s_i\right]}= \sum_{j=1}^{m} 1_{\left]u_j,v_j\right]},$$ \end{document}
where \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $1_{\left]a,b\right]}$ \end{document} denotes the characteristic function of the interval \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\left]a,b\right]$ \end{document}. In the particular case when \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d: I^{2} \to R$ \end{document} is a so-called concave semimetric, a function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p: I \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} is of the form \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p=q+ \ell$ \end{document} if and only if
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$0 \le \sum_{k=1}^{n}{d(x_{2k-1},x_{2k})} + d(x_0,x_{2n+1}) + \sum_{k=0}^{n}{\big(p(x_{2k+1})-p(x_{2k})\big)}$$ \end{document}
holds for all \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $x_0\le x_1< \cdots< x_{2n}\le x_{2n+1}$ \end{document} in \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $I$ \end{document}.
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# Monotonic solutions of some singular integral equations of Volterra type

Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica
Authors: Mahmoud Borai, Wagdy El-Sayed, and Mohammed Abbas

Banás, J. and Martinón, A. , On monotonic solutions of a quadratic integral equation of Volterra type, Comput. Math. App. , 47 (2004), no. 2–3, 271–279. MR 2005b :45002 Martinón A

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# Weakly linearly lindelöf monotonically normal spaces are lindelöf

Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica
Authors: István Juhász, Vladimir V. Tkachuk, and Richard G. Wilson

. , General Topology , Heldermann Verlag , Berlin , 1989 .  Gartside , P. M. , Cardinal invariants of monotonically normal

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# L 1-approximation rate of certain trigonometric series

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: R. J. Le and S. P. Zhou

. 25 19 – 25 (in Chinese).  Zhou , S. P. 2010 What condition can correctly generalize monotonicity in L 1 -convergence of sine series

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# A broader context for monotonically monolithic spaces

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: O. Alas, V. Tkachuk, and R. Wilson

## Abstract

This is a sequel of the work done on (strongly) monotonically monolithic spaces and their generalizations. We introduce the notion of monotonically κ-monolithic space for any infinite cardinal κ and present the relevant results. We show, among other things, that any σ-product of monotonically κ-monolithic spaces is monotonically κ-monolithic for any infinite cardinal κ; besides, it is consistent that any strongly monotonically ω-monolithic space with caliber ω 1 is second countable. We also study (strong) monotone κ-monolithicity in linearly ordered spaces and subspaces of ordinals.

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# Monotonicity properties of operations on generalized topologies

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Author: Ákos Császár

Summary In the paper , several operations on generalized topologies are considered. They are not monotone in general, but an old result on monotonicity may be sharpened.

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# A note on monotonically normal spaces

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: Y. Gao, H. Qu, and S. Wang

## Abstract

We show that a monotonically normal space X is paracompact if and only if for every increasing open cover {U α: α < κ} of X, there is a closed cover {F : n < ω, α < κ} of X such that F U α for n < ω, α < κ and F F if αβ.

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# A monotonicity property of Riemann’s xi function and a reformulation of the Riemann hypothesis

Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: Jonathan Sondow and Cristian Dumitrescu

## Abstract

We prove that Riemann’s xi function is strictly increasing (respectively, strictly decreasing) in modulus along every horizontal half-line in any zero-free, open right (respectively, left) half-plane. A corollary is a reformulation of the Riemann Hypothesis.

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# A generalization of the monotonicity condition and applications

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: D. Yu and S. Zhou

## Abstract

We introduce a new class of sequences called NBVS to generalize GBVS, essentially extending monotonicity from “one sided” to “two sided”, while some important classical results keep true.

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# Weak Solutions for Obstacle Problems with Weak Monotonicity

Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica
Authors: Farah Balaadich and Elhoussine Azroul

. Azroul and F . Balaadich . On strongly quasilinear elliptic systems with weak monotonicity . J. Appl. Anal ., ( 2021 ). 10.1515/jaa-2020-2041  F . Balaadich and E . Azroul . Elliptic Systems of p -Laplacian Type . Tamkang Journal of

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