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Repetitive acoustic stimuli elicit steady-state response (SSR) in the gamma-band both in humans and in mammals. Our aim was to investigate changes of the spontaneous gamma activity and the SSR in the auditory cortex of cats in the background of an instrumental conditioning situation. Epidural electrodes were chronically implanted above the auditory neocortex. The presentation rate of the clicks varied between 20 and 65/s. Spontaneous EEG and SSR were collected in three behavioral states: in an indifferent environment, in the instrumental cage while the cat was waiting for the light CS, and when she stepped on the pedal and was waiting for the meat reward. Using different repetition rate clicks we determined which stimulus rate elicited the largest SSR in these three situations. In quiet animal the highest SSR appeared at 28-30/s. Before and during the CS the optimal stimulus rate shifted to 32-38/s. The frequency of the spontaneous gamma activity changed in parallel way depending on the situation. We conclude that both the SSR and the spontaneous gamma activity reflect resonant activity of the same neuronal circuit of the auditory cortex, and it is modulated by the motivational state of the animal.

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The ant, Formica japonica, is polyphagous and workers hunt other insects as foods. In this study, interspecific aggression was examined in the workers and queens. Behavior experiments demonstrated that interspecific aggressiveness was significantly higher in workers than queens. Workers showed predatory aggressive behavior towards crickets, on the other hand, queens elicited threat behavior but they didn’t attack crickets. In order to investigate neuronal mechanisms underlying regulation of aggressive motivation, the role of biogenic amine in the brain in evoking aggressive behavior was examined by measuring biogenic amine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ECD). No significant difference in the octopamine (OA) level was found between workers and queens, but the level of N-acetyloctopamine (NacOA) in the brain of queens was significantly higher than that of workers. This study suggests that OAergic system in the brain must involve in controlling aggressive motivation in the ants.

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The central representation of intero- and exteroreceptors located in visceral organs and the osphradium were compared in the CNS of Helix pomatia L. (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) and Lymnaea stagnalis L. (Gastropoda, Basommatophora), two pulmonate snail species inhabiting a terrestrial and anaquatic environment, respectively. Semi-intact preparations were used comprising the CNS connected by the corresponding nerves either to the cardio-renal, respiratory and genital systems or to the osphradium. Spike discharges of central neurons and the nerves were recorded simultaneously. The central representation of intero- and exteroreceptors was found to be distributed throughout the CNS and involved about 300 neurons. The majority of the neurons received sensory information from all the studied visceral organs and the osphradium. Among the neurons responding to intero- and exteroreceptors a multimodal reaction to tactile, chemical and osmotic stimuli prevailed while in the osphradium specific reactions also were demonstrated. Central neurons receiving sensory information from visceral organs and the osphradium form overlapping and reorganizing neural circuits using the same neurons in the regulation of heart activity, respiration or reproduction producing the appropriate behaviour. In the selection of sensory information the firing pattern appears to be the main determining factor as bursting neurons do not receive sensory information. The central representation of intero- and exteroreceptors and its variability can be a model system for cellular studies of motivational state and self-perception.

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Straw is a valuable by-product from cereal production. It is used for agricultural purposes as feed and bedding material for livestock. Additionally, cereal straw is a resource for the production of sustainable biomaterials and bio-energy. To meet the demands of these sectors substantial amounts of straw, with specific properties (e.g. water-holding capacity), are necessary. Since wheat breeding has mainly focused on grain yield rather than on straw yield other cereal species, such as triticale, can be of interest. Therefore, in this research the straw yield and water-holding capacity of four winter wheat and four winter triticale varieties were studied during two growing seasons. For both wheat and triticale there were differences in dry matter yield and percentage dry matter between growing seasons. Furthermore, depending on the growing season, there were significant differences in straw yield between the different wheat and triticale varieties. However, during both growing seasons, the straw yield obtained from the triticale varieties was significantly higher compared to the straw yield obtained from the wheat varieties. Concerning the water-holding capacity, it was concluded that the water absorption potential of triticale straw was higher compared to the water absorption potential of wheat straw. However, only in 2014 a significant difference between wheat and triticale was noted. So, it can be concluded that, besides the known advantages of triticale (performance on marginal soils, disease resistance, low fertilizer input, etc.), this crop has the potential to deliver high yields of high quality straw.

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Bindra, D. (1968) A unified interpretation of emotion and motivation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 159 , 1071–1083. Bindra D. A unified interpretation of emotion and motivation

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This study examined the effects of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarataRoscoe (Zingiberaceae) on male sexual competence and fertility, using a hot water extract (HWE) and rats. Different doses of HWE (150, 250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated to male rats and their sexual behaviour was monitored (for 15 min) 3 h later using receptive females. Fertility was determined in a separate group (with the highest dose) using a noncompetitive copulation test. In the sexual behaviour study, the HWE impaired the number of rats ejaculating and markedly prolonged the latency for ejaculation. Further, the number of rats mounting and intromitting, and the latencies for mounting and intromission were inhibited. Collectively, these observations indicate a strong aphrodisiac action. The other parameters remained unchanged indicating non-impairment in libido, sexual arousability, sexual vigour and sexual performance or penile erectile ability. However, a slight impairment was evident in sexual motivation (with the highest dose) in a partner preference test. In the fertility test, HWE induced profound oligozoospermia but fertility was uninhibited. The highest dose of HWE also elevated the serum testosterone level and the number of spontaneous penile erections rapidly and markedly. Further, the HWE was nontoxic. It is concluded that A. calcaratarhizomes possess a strong and safe oral aphrodisiac activity.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Elizabeth C. Cropper
,
C. G. Evans
,
J. Jing
,
A. Klein
,
A. Proekt
,
A. Romero
, and
S. C. Rosen

Kupfermann, I. (1974) Feeding behavior in Aplysia: a simple system for the study of motivation. Behav. Biol. 10 , 1-26. Feeding behavior in Aplysia: a simple system for the study of motivation Behav

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, D. , K. Henle , A. Loyau , A. Besnard and P.Y. Henry . 2012 . Bird-monitoring in Europe–a first overview of practices, motivations and aims . Nature Cons. 2 : 41 – 57

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Community Ecology
Authors:
M. L. Allen
,
M. J. Farmer
,
J. D. J Clare
,
E. R. Olson
,
J. Van Stappen
, and
T. R. Van Deelen

a. The importance of motivation, weapons, and foul odors in driving encounter competition in carnivores . Ecology 97 : 1905 – 1912 . Allen , M.L. , H.U. Wittmer , E. Setiawan

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Mols, P.J.M. 1979. Motivation and walking behaviour of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. at different densities and distributions of the prey. A preliminary report. Misc. Papers LH Wageningen 18

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