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and public objects: An investigation of citer motivations Journal of the American Society for Information Science 37 1 34 – 36

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Abstract  

The citation motivations among 51 self citing authors in several natural science disciplines were investigated. Results of a survey on reasons for both self citation and citation to others show that there are very few differences in motivation, and that there are plausible intellectual grounds for those differences which are substantial. Analysis of exposure in text reveals virtually no differences between self citations and citations to others. Analysis of individual disciplines also uncover no substantive differences in either motivation or exposure in text.

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Summary  

We define the URL citations of a Web page to be the mentions of its URL in the text of other Web pages, whether hyperlinked or not. The proportions of formal and informal scholarly motivations for creating URL citations to Library and Information Science open access journal articles were identified. Five characteristics for each source of URL citations equivalent to formal citations were manually extracted and the relationship between Web and conventional citation counts at the e-journal level was examined. Results of Google searches showed that 282 research articles published in the year 2000 in 15 peer-reviewed LIS open access journals were invoked by 3,045 URL citations. Of these URL citations, 43% were created for formal scholarly reasons equivalent to traditional citations and 18% for informal scholarly reasons. Of the sources of URL citations, 82% were in English, 88% were full text papers and 58% were non-HTML documents. Of the URL citations, 60% were text URLs only and 40% were hyperlinked. About 50% of URL citations were created within one year after the publication of the cited e-article. A slight correlation was found between average numbers of URL citations and average numbers of ISI citations for the journals in 2000. Separating out the citing HTML and non-HTML documents showed that formal scholarly communication trends on the Web were mainly influenced by text URL citations from non-HTML documents.

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Abstract  

This paper reports results from a survey of 208 Italian faculty members, inventors of university-owned patents, on their motivation to get involved in university patenting activities, the obstacles that they faced, and their suggestions to foster the commercialization of academic knowledge through patents. Findings show that respondents get involved in patenting activities to enhance their prestige and reputation, and look for new stimuli for their research; personal earnings do not represent a main incentive. University-level patent regulations reduce the obstacles perceived by inventors, as far as they signal universities’ commitment to legitimate patenting activities. Implications for innovation policies are discussed.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam
,
Mohammad Hasanzadeh
, and
Zainab Ghayoori

emphasis on individual factors (e.g. creativity, working habits, motivation, socialization, autonomy and commitment, and self confidence) has been made by Hedjazi and Behravan ( 2011 ). Additionally, the results of Babu and Singh's ( 1998 ) survey indicated

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studies, there remain many motivations for collaboration that have not been empirically proven and remain mere theoretical suggestions due to the difficulties of gathering appropriate and reliable datasets and the limited bibliographic information in the

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Abstract

In this comment, we re-evaluate an example using a “thermodynamic” paradigm to show how bibliometrics can incorporate normalization into the evaluative process. The motivation for this is the recent exchange in the pages of this journal from two groups that have taken different positions on how normalization should be done.

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A proper edge coloring of a graph 𝐺 is strong if the union of any two color classes does not contain a path with three edges (i.e. the color classes are induced matchings). The strong chromatic index 𝑞(𝐺) is the smallest number of colors needed for a strong coloring of 𝐺. One form of the famous (6, 3)-theorem of Ruzsa and Szemerédi (solving the (6, 3)-conjecture of Brown–Erdős–Sós) states that 𝑞(𝐺) cannot be linear in 𝑛 for a graph 𝐺 with 𝑛 vertices and 𝑐𝑛2 edges. Here we study two refinements of 𝑞(𝐺) arising from the analogous (7, 4)-conjecture. The first is 𝑞𝐴(𝐺), the smallest number of colors needed for a proper edge coloring of 𝐺 such that the union of any two color classes does not contain a path or cycle with four edges, we call it an A-coloring. The second is 𝑞𝐵(𝐺), the smallest number of colors needed for a proper edge coloring of 𝐺 such that all four-cycles are colored with four different colors, we call it a B-coloring. These notions lead to two stronger and one equivalent form of the (7, 4)-conjecture in terms of 𝑞𝐴(𝐺), 𝑞𝐵(𝐺) where 𝐺 is a balanced bipartite graph. Since these are questions about graphs, perhaps they will be easier to handle than the original special(7, 4)-conjecture. In order to understand the behavior of 𝑞𝐴(𝐺) and 𝑞𝐵(𝐺), we study these parameters for some graphs.

We note that 𝑞𝐴(𝐺) has already been extensively studied from various motivations. However, as far as we know the behavior of 𝑞𝐵(𝐺) is studied here for the first time.

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Motivations for academic Web site interlinking: Evidence for the Web as a novel source of information on informal scholarly communication Journal of Information Science 29 1 49 – 56 .

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