Forage plants may become contaminated by mycotoxins already on the cropland as a result of mould infection, the degree of which can be diminished by the use of appropriate agrotechnical methods or resistant plant cultivars. During storage, the main goal is to prevent further mould infection and mycotoxin contamination. In that period, the moisture content of feedstuffs and the mould contamination of storage spaces, which can be minimised by the use of fungicidal products, are the most critical factors. Feed manufacturing processes do not substantially decrease the mycotoxin content of feedstuffs, and the efficiency of the recommended chemical and/or heat treatment procedures is also questionable as they are expensive and may reduce the nutrient content. To minimise the adverse effects of mycotoxins on animals, the use of products capable of binding and biologically transforming mycotoxins is also recommended; however, such products have varying efficacy.
development. Diseased grains are shrivelled, discoloured, and lightweight ( Goswami and Kistler, 2004 ). Under favourable conditions, Fusarium species can produce mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisins (FUM
Our knowledge on the presence of mycotoxin producing fungi and mycotoxins in food commodities in the last decade in Hungary has been summarized in this review. Among the mycotoxin producing fungi, detailed data are available for Fusarium species in cereals, and mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species in different food commodities including coffee, raisins and spices. Ochratoxin concentrations above the tolerable limit have mostly been detected in imported products such as peanuts and coffee. Ochratoxin levels close to the tolerable limit have been observed in Hungarian red peppers. Besides, ochratoxin A has also been detected in Hungarian wine, beer and raisins. Aflatoxins are usually detected in considerable quantities only in imported agricultural products in Hungary, while patulin concentrations were usually below the allowable limit in Hungarian apple juice concentrates. In the future, continuous sampling and analysis of foods and feeds are required to ensure consumer safety in Hungary.
; Wang et al., 2006 ). Mycotoxins are small and toxic chemical products formed by different fungal species. These species can contaminate feedstuff with toxins during cultivation or after harvest and cause a toxic response when ingested by vertebrate
The influence of three milling techniques (MT1: industrial roller-grinder, MT2: grain hammer crasher, and MT3: traditional millstone) and two baking methods (BM1: industrial oven, BM2: traditional ceramic stove heated by wood (log fire oven)) on mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) levels in bread were investigated. The DON and NIV concentrations in wheat grain, flour, and bread were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection methods. The 2 500 kg lot of wheat grain containing 1 400–1 900 μg kg
deoxynivalenol and 130–200 μg kg
nivalenol was divided into sub-lots which were processed to get three types of flour (F1: industrial bread flour, F2: industrial wholegrain flour and F3: traditional wholegrain flour). The concentrations of DON and NIV measured after milling the grain according to MT1 (yielding F1) amounted to 310–370 \g kg
and <50–70 μg kg
, respectively. After applying MT2 to the grain (yielding F2), the DON and NIV levels were measured to be 1 060–1 400 μg kg
and 60–87 μg kg
, respectively. Applying MT3 (yielding F3) produced a DON level of 1 100–1 770 μg kg
1 and a NIV level of 80–95 μg kg
. Six types of bread were baked from the three types of flour according to BM1 or BM2, and the mycotoxin levels were analysed. The average reduction in DON concentration after baking (70 min at 195–235 °C) was 47.2% for bread baked in the industrial oven and 48.7% for bread baked in the log fire oven. Concentrations of DON in bread prepared by the industrial MT1 were under the permitted limit of 500 μg kg
stated in EC (2006) regulation, despite the fact that the bread was baked from grains highly contaminated with mycotoxins. In the bread baked from traditional wholegrain flour, mycotoxin concentrations were higher (850–950 μg kg
Mycotoxins are natural compounds that may cause various adverse toxicological manifestations in humans and animals. The nature, the severity and scope of their adverse activity are varied and in general, even in small amount they have potent carcinogenic, genotoxic effect and injure the immune system. In order to provide high level of health protection for consumers, the European Union has established strict regulatory limits, whose implementation is enforced.The EC (2001) Commission Regulation sets maximum levels for some mycotoxins in foodstuffs: for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Particular product categories are regulated under specific decisions ordaining control of imported consignments at the point of entry. Due to the fact that only aflatoxins are addressed in the specific decisions, they are the mostly detected and notified mycotoxins in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). The second most frequent group, Ochratoxin A is typically detected during internal EU market controls. Most RASFF notifications concern product categories falling under specific EU decisions, especially the Aflatoxin content of nuts and nut products. Significant amount of aflatoxins can be found also in dried fruits, spices and herbs.The article reviews and analyses the data available in rapid alert system concerning mycotoxins notification, and evaluates the usefulness of this information for risk assessment. The value of RASFF system is unquestionable and it fulfils its intended function included in its name. The system is a significant source of valuable information, but for risk assessment purposes, other additional information is needed. It could be used most effectively for risk assessment, if it was to provide data on the ratio of all/tested/positive lots and if the authorities provided not only the positive results, but also the exact mycotoxins level of every analysed sample.
Introduction The detection of fungal infections is of great importance in food science since one of the most serious problems of food safety is the presence of mycotoxins produced by microscopic fungi. Molds can grow on many kinds of substrates
There are numerous biological agents including bacteria such as Brucella suis, B. abortus, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, Coxiella burnetii, Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Chlamydia psittaci, viruses such as Variola major and V. minor, Flavivirus and Hantavirus, and toxins such as Botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B and Trichothecene mycotoxin reported to have potential to cause illness via water consumption. In the recent years, biological threat prevention for urban water supply systems has been of special interest worldwide, thus, protection against biological agents requires adequate knowledge, available water treatment technologies and preparedness. In this review, the history of biological threat via public water supply, as well as selected early detection methods, prevention strategies and risk assessment models are detailed.
/High–performance thin layer chromatography as a tool for mycotoxin determination.-in: Cole , R.J. (Ed.) Modern methods in the analysis and structural elucidation of mycotoxins . Academic Press Inc., Orlando, USA, pp. 241