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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Branislav Kureljušić, Božidar Savić, Vesna Milićević, Nemanja Jezdimirović, Oliver Radanović, Jadranka Žutić, and Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

feeding factors, such as the use of dry feed, magnesium and copper deficiencies, and increased mycotoxin concentrations, has already been discussed ( Torrison and Cameron, 2019 ). In the year 2019, we observed a severe case of PENS during one of our farm

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Fungal toxins are secondary metabolites, in which many of them were mycotoxins, affecting eukaryotic cells with a broad range of structural and functional variety contributing to the multitude of their classification. This refers to the harmful genotoxic (mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic) effects of mycotoxins on the one hand, and their cytocidic and antineoplastic properties on the other hand. This “double edged sword” effect could be utilized against the spread of tumors in older patients when the survival is much more important than the mutagenic side effects. To decide which fungal toxins could be used as combined cytotoxic and antimetastatic agents, mycotoxins were divided into three categories: (a) highly genotoxic (mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic), (b) adversely toxic, and (c) antitumorigenic agents. Highly cytotoxic mycotoxins with tolerable side effects, combined with an antineoplastic character, could be potential candidates against metastasis. From the structure–function relationship of antimetastatic mycotoxins, only general conclusions have been drawn. The presence of ring structures containing heteroatoms, functional groups, and the cumulative presence of oxygen atoms contributed to the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity of mycotoxins. The preselection of mycotoxins excluded category (a), and only the categories (b) and (c) were considered to be potential agents against the metastatic spread of abdominal tumors in rodent metastatic tumor experiments.

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Introduction In recent years, cereals (wheat, barley, maize) have most commonly been contaminated with moulds of the genus Fusarium , producing an extremely important group of mycotoxins called trichothecenes. The trichothecenes are divided into

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Mycotoxin-producing fungi may contaminate agricultural products in the field (preharvest spoilage), during storage (postharvest spoilage), or during processing. Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses serious health hazard to animals and humans. For lowering mycotoxin contamination of feeds and foods, several strategies have been investigated that can be divided into biological, chemical and physical methods. This paper gives an overview of strategies which are promising with regard to lowering the mycotoxin burden of animals and humans.

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We examined the blastogenic response to phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) in HLA-B8, DR3 positive and negative subjects in the presence or absence of the immunosuppressive Fusarium mycotoxin.  HLA-B8, DR3 haplotype was associated with a depression of the response to mitogen in the absence of the mycotoxin, whereas in the presence of deoxynivalenol we could not detect significant differences among individuals either possessing or lacking this haplotype.

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Ingredients used in animal feeds and their contamination with undesirable substances, such as mycotoxins, are fundamentally important both in terms of the quality of animal products and the potential human health impacts associated with the animal-based food production chain. Feed ingredients contaminated with mycotoxins may have a wide range of toxicological effects on animals. Therefore, mycotoxin contamination of feed ingredients constituting complete feed products represents an important potential hazard in farm animal production. This review summarises the potential effects of some preventive methods used during the storage of cereal grains as well as of nutritive (e.g. antioxidants, amino acids, fats) or non-nutritive compounds (e.g. pharmacological substances, carbon- or silica-based polymers) and detoxifying enzymes recommended for use against the toxic effects of different mycotoxins.

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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on some biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Twenty-four Ross 308 hybrid broiler chickens of both sexes were fed diets containing maize contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. The diets included a control diet (DON 0.60 mg/kg feed; ZEA 0.07 mg/kg feed), an experimental 1 diet (DON 3.4 mg kg −1 feed; ZEA 3.4 mg kg −1 feed), and an experimental 2 diet (DON 8.2 mg kg −1 feed; ZEA 8.3 mg kg −1 feed). Contaminated diets were fed from 14 days of age for 14 days. Blood samples were collected from 4-week-old birds. Chicks fed a diet containing a low level of contaminated maize (experimental 1) had decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased cholesterol and calcium levels as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities as compared to the control. Feeding a diet contaminated with high levels of mycotoxins (experimental 2) resulted in decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased plasma ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST enzyme activities. The effect of mycotoxin-contaminated diets on ALP activity was dose dependent. Chloride concentration was not affected by the diets. It can be concluded that feeding diets contaminated with both levels of Fusarium mycotoxins significantly affected protein, lipid and mineral metabolism as well as AST and ALP enzyme activities in broiler chickens.

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The mycotoxins β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and deoxynivalenol (DON) produce toxic effects that result in diseases in humans and animals. The molecular mechanisms that control the mycotoxin-mediated effects are far from being completely understood. Various results show that these mycotoxins could inhibit cell proliferation. In the present short communication, the influence of β-ZOL and DON on the abundance and phosphorylation state of kinases that are included in regulation of the initiation of mRNA translation (which is correlated with cell proliferation) was compared in porcine endometrial cells (PEC). Our results indicate that these mycotoxins modulate the expression and phosphorylation of these factors in a different manner. Whereas β-ZOL mainly had an impact on the biological activity of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its repressor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), DON reduced the abundance of p38 MAPk, Akt and specific 4E-BP1 bands. In summary, these results indicate that β-ZOL influences molecular events that are included in the initiation of mRNA translation in the porcine endometrium but DON does not alter such processes clearly.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Viera Revajová, Mikuláš Levkut, Mária Levkutová, Radka Bořutová, Ľubomíra Grešaková, Božena Košiková, and Ľubomír Leng

The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on peripheral blood leukocytes and duodenal immunocompetent cells in broiler chickens. From day 1 after hatching, all chickens were fed an identical control diet for two weeks. Then chickens of Group 1 continued to be fed the control diet, whereas Group 2 was fed the same diet supplemented with lignin at 0.5% level. Simultaneously, Group 3 started to receive a diet contaminated with DON (2.95 mg kg−1) and ZEA (1.59 mg kg−1), while Group 4 received an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin for further two weeks. Samples of blood and duodenal tissue were collected from 6 birds of each group at 4 weeks of age. Neither counts of white blood cells nor phagocytic function in the peripheral blood were significantly affected in the mycotoxin- and/or lignin-treated birds. As compared to the control, increased numbers of IgM-bearing cells were found in the peripheral blood in Group 3 fed the contaminated diet (P < 0.05) and in Group 4 given the contaminated diet supplemented with lignin (P < 0.01). While the contaminated diet led to reduced numbers of duodenal CD4+ cells, in Group 2 treated only with lignin the number of duodenal CD4+ cells was increased. Lignin enrichment of the contaminated diet did not eliminate the mycotoxin-induced reduction in the number of duodenal CD4+ cells. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of lignin as an indigestible compound to poultry feed may increase the density of some intestinal immunocompetent cells without exerting effects on that in the peripheral blood. However, when added to a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, lignin did not prevent the mycotoxin-induced changes in the numbers of blood and intestinal immunocompetent cells.

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The mycotoxin T-2 has many harmful effects on mammalian cells and reproductive functions. In the present study, the in vitro effect of T-2 toxin on mouse blastocysts was examined. Embryos were cultured in media supplemented with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 ng/ml T-2. Different exposure times were applied [96 h (treatment I) or 24 h following 72 h in toxin-free media (treatment II)]. Blastomere number, nuclear chromatin status and blastocoel formation were investigated in blastocysts. Our data show that the effect of T-2 toxin may vary depending on the stage of the embryo at the start of exposure. At 96 h of exposure, the blastocysts had blastomeres with normal chromatin quality but their developmental potential was decreased. After 24 h of exposure applied following a 72-h culture, blastomeres had a higher level of chromatin damage, although their developmental potential was the same as in the control embryos. In both cases, decreased mitotic rate was found, which resulted in decreased blastomere number even at low toxin concentration.

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