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Abstract  

Previous research on risk perception suggests that levels of education and information influence concerns over the effects of new technology. This article reports analysis of the impact of several cognitive factors (including education and knowledge) on the perception of risks attributed to applications of modern biotechnology (based on genetic engineering) to food production and agriculture. Using data from a 1992 US-nationwide telephone survey the statistical research identifies those cognitive factors that significantly influence risk perceptions. Additionally, the study reveals those potential influences that, despite their prominence in political and popular debates on risk communication and science education, do not determine the perception of risks on biotechnology in any significant manner.

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Abstract  

We explore an empirical approach to studying the social and political implications of science by gathering scientists’ perceptions of the social impacts of their research. It was found that 78 percent of surveyed scientists from a variety of fields responding to a survey indicated that the research performed in connection with a recent highly cited paper had such implications. Health related implications were the most common, but other types of implications encountered were technological spin-offs, public understanding, economic and policy benefits. Surprisingly many scientists considered the advancement of science itself to be a social implication of their research. The relations of these implications to the field and topics of research are examined, and a mapping of implications gives an overview of the major dimensions of the social impacts of science.

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Abstract  

This paper reports findings from a study on the perceptions of work climate and the patters of relationships between work climate dimensions and performance of research and development units in six countries. The study is based on the analysis of the subset of date collected in Argentina, Egypt, India, Republic of Korea, Poland and UkSSR for the second round of International Comparative Study on the Organization and Performance of Research Units. The following dimensions of work climate have been usec: morale, openness, job satisfaction, work contacts, career opportunities, satisfaction with supervisor, information on research plans, research autonomy. Stepwise regression analyses were carrier out separately for each country and also on global sample to find out the important dimensions of work climate in explaining the variations in the performance of R&D units. The set of work climate dimensions are related separately for two different measures of performance of research units, viz. (1) scientific effectiveness; and (2) user-oriented effectiveness. The implications of this study for management of research and development groups are discussed.

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Abstract  

Currently the Journal Impact Factors (JIF) attracts considerable attention as components in the evaluation of the quality of research in and between institutions. This paper reports on a questionnaire study of the publishing behaviour and researchers preferences for seeking new knowledge information and the possible influence of JIF on these variables. 54 Danish medical researchers active in the field of Diabetes research took part. We asked the researchers to prioritise a series of scientific journals with respect to which journals they prefer for publishing research and gaining new knowledge. In addition we requested the researchers to indicate whether or not the JIF of the prioritised journals has had any influence on these decisions. Furthermore we explored the perception of the researchers as to what degree the JIF could be considered a reliable, stable or objective measure for determining the scientific quality of journals. Moreover we asked the researchers to judge the applicability of JIF as a measure for doing research evaluations. One remarkable result is that app. 80% of the researchers share the opinion that JIF does indeed have an influence on which journals they would prefer for publishing. As such we found a statistically significant correlation between how the researchers ranked the journals and the JIF of the ranked journals. Another notable result is that no significant correlation exists between journals where the researchers actually have published papers and journals in which they would prefer to publish in the future measured by JIF. This could be taken as an indicator for the actual motivational influence on the publication behaviour of the researchers. That is, the impact factor actually works in our case. It seems that the researchers find it fair and reliable to use the Journal Impact Factor for research evaluation purposes.

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Abstract  

A number of proxy measures have been used as indicators of journal quality. The most recent and commonly employed are journal impact factors. These measures are somewhat controversial, although they are frequently referred to in establishing the impact of published journal articles. Within psychology, little is known about the relationship between the ‘objective’ impact factors of journals and the ‘subjective’ ratings of prestige and perceived publishing difficulty amongst academics. In order to address this, a cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in the UK to investigate research activity and academics’ views of journals within three fields of psychology; cognitive, health and social. Impact factors for each journal were correlated with individual academic’s perceptions of prestige and publishing difficulty for each journal. A number of variables pertaining to the individual academic and their place of work were assessed as predictors of these correlation values, including age, gender, institution type, and a measure of departmental research activity. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to perceptions of journal prestige and publishing difficulty, higher education in general and the assessment of research activity within academic institutions.

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Abstract  

The interweaving of three different sorts of software based on different algorithms (co-world analysis and downward hierarchical classification) and applied on a file (in the field of risk assessment through the introduction of transgenic plants) extracted from the CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau) data base, has enable us to provide three types of results: Leximappe provides a synthetic image from clusters of key-words. The main themes were identified. Alceste improves a corpus' characterization and allows a logical reading of it, thanks to the creation of categories, along with their mutual dependencies, the peculiar, meaning of each and their division in time. Moreover, Alceste allows us to perceive the contexts of the contents previously identified under Leximappe. Sampler allows us to go into the details of the terms association in graphical form and detail the specific orientations of the corpus, especially with the inscription of weak signals. Finally, this software, applied from the categories drawn from Alceste, offers for each category a meaningful graphic representation. We can argue that the different ways of measuring and presenting results are complementary since they highlight different aspects of risk assessment carried by different actors, as it is underlined in social science studies of public controversy. Moreover we can follow these actors through the categories and clusters (socioeconomic, scientific and risk assessment linked to regulation and policy) which are more and more differenciated in time. This methodology allows the study of emerging processes in the social construction of issues within controversies.

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Abstract  

Journal citation impact factors, which are frequently used as a surrogate measure of research quality, do not correlate well with UK researchers" subjective views of the relative importance of journals as media for communicating important biomedical research results. The correlation varies with the sub-field: it is almost zero in nursing research but is moderate in more “scientific” sub-fields such as multiple sclerosis research, characterised by many authors per paper and appreciable foreign co-authorship. If research evaluation is to be based on journal-specific indicators, then these must cover different aspects of the process whereby research impacts on other researchers and on healthcare improvement.

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issue recommendations. In “ Checking similarity measures against researchers’ perception of relatedness ” section, we define an evaluation protocol for measuring the accuracy of recommendations according to researchers’ perception. It allows us to assess

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students. The model also shows that the PU affects the US and LE constructs. It suggests the usefulness perception of IS makes the user satisfied as well as facilitates the understanding of the domain they researched. The SQ affects the US and the perceived

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Abstract

In academia, the term “inbreeding” refers to a situation wherein PhDs are employed in the very same institution that trained them during their doctoral studies. Academic inbreeding has a negative perception on the account that it damages both scientific effectiveness and productivity. In this article, the effect of inbreeding on scientific effectiveness is investigated through a case study. This problem is addressed by utilizing Hirsch index as a reliable metric of an academic's scientific productivity. Utilizing the dataset, constructed with academic performance indicators of individuals from the Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Departments, of the Turkish Technical Universities, we demonstrate that academic inbreeding has a negative impact on apparent scientific effectiveness through a negative binomial model. This model appears to be the most suitable one for the dataset which is a type of count data. We report chi-square statistics and likelihood ratio test for the parameter alpha. According to the chi-square statistics the model is significant as a whole. The incidence rate ratio for the variable “inbreeding” is estimated to be 0.11 and this ratio tells that, holding all the other factors constant, for the inbred faculty, the h-index is about 89% lower when compared to the non-inbred faculty. Furthermore, there exists negative and statistically significant correlation with an individual's productivity and the percentage of inbred faculty members at the very same department. Excessive practice of inbreeding adversely affects the overall productivity. Decision makers are urged to limit this practice to a minimum in order to foster a vibrant research environment. Furthermore, it is also found that scientific productivity of an individual decreases towards the end of his scientific career.

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