Rye ( Secale cereale L.) has been cultivated since ancient times in Europe and is the second most important crop after wheat for production of bread and other bakery products. In botanical
. sanfranciscensis , L. plantarum , and S. cerevisiae are the most frequently isolated species from sourdough, and they are positively related to the sensory quality of sourdough breads ( G obbetti et al., 2005 ). Liquid rye sour is a kind of additive used in the
Authors:J. Bajerska, S. Mildner-Szkudlarz, and E. Pruszynska-Oszmalek
We examined the hypothesis that rye bread enriched with green tea extract (GTE) (at two different doses) can prevent obesity as a component of a hypercaloric diet by decreasing the absorption of energy providing nutrients and regulating lipid metabolism-related hormones, in comparison with normal caloric diet used in the Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: group ND received a normal caloric diet, group HRB received a hypercaloric diet with control rye bread, groups HRB0.8% and HRB1.1% received a hypercaloric diet with rye bread enriched with 0.8% and 1.1% GTE, respectively. Higher food intake in the ND group compared with the other groups of rats was noted; however, there was no statistical difference in the energy intake among any of the groups. Consumption of the hypercaloric diet increased the body weight of the rats (in comparison with ND), but rats from HRB1.1% group showed a tendency towards smaller gains in body weight (∼4.0%) when compared to the HRB group. The addition of 1.1% GTE to rye bread resulted in an increase in the energy content of faeces, compared to both HRB and ND groups. No differences were observed in plasma leptin concentrations between the four groups. The insulin level in rats fed a hypercaloric diet was higher in comparison to rats from the ND group. The consumption of rye bread enriched with 1.1% GTE may increase faeces energy excretion, but without significantly suppressing body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, or changing biochemical parameters related to lipid metabolism.
Authors:D. Koren, B. Hegyesné Vecseri, and G. Kun-Farkas
than 90% of commercial beers are ﬁltered, the grain is the primary source of folate in the majority of the ﬁnal products. The most often used cereal for beer brewing is barley, but wheat, oat, and rye are also applied besides barley. Grains used for
Bread is one of basic human dietary items. Bread products commercially available usually contain flour, water, yeast or sourdough, and numerous functional additives, among them inorganic chlorides (mainly NaCl), phosphates, and sulphates, modifying physicochemical properties of final products to be attractive for consumers. Various kinds (whole-wheat, rye, and wheat rye) of Polish commercial breads were examined for contents of chlorides, phosphates, and sulphates by combination of water extraction and ion chromatography with conductometric detection. The evaluated amounts of the analytes corresponded to 0.58–1.06 g of chlorides (1–1.8 g NaCl), 100–300 mg of phosphates, and 10–130 mg of sulphates in 100 g (ca. two slices) of bread, which means that bread can be an important source of inorganic ions for humans, in particular in case of high consumption.
Authors:B. Langó, L. Bóna, E. Ács, and S. Tömösközi
Traditionally, triticale is mainly used as animal feed, the use for human utilization is still uncertain. However, in the past few decades, importance of triticale is increasing globally. Therefore, the determination of nutritionally important parameters of triticale and study of their genetic and environmental (G×E) variability have essential importance. In this study, ten hexaploid triticales along with reference wheat and rye varieties were grown at two locations in Hungary in a three-year-long experiment. Crude protein (8.6–16.3%), crude fat (0.86–1.98%), starch (57.6–65.0%), and dietary fibre values (7.5–13.7%) showed notable differences, significant genotype control were detected in all tested parameters except ash content (1.42–2.10%). The analysis of variance confirmed that crop year affected all traits, and also location had significant effect on the formation of protein and – to a lesser extent – the fibre levels. Furthermore, interactions between the effects were observed. Generally, nutritional characteristics of triticales were positioned between wheat and rye in this experiment; however, there were notable differences between the genotypes, and also the magnitudes of environmental effects were significant. Nutritional values of triticale provide a prospect for food production and human consumption.
Authors:Adnan Eser, Hajnalka Kató, Laura Kempf, and Márton Jolánkai
Water availability is one of the major physiological factors influencing plant growth and development. An assessment study has been done at the Szent István University, Gödöllő to evaluate and identify the water footprint of protein yield of field crop species. Twelve field crop species (Sugar beet Beta vulgaris, spring and winter barley Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat Triticum aestivum, maize Zea mays, sunflower Helianthus annuus, peas Pisum sativum, potato Solanum tuberosum, alfalfa Medicago sativa, oilseed rape Brassica napus, rye Secale cereale and oats Avena sativa) were involved in the study. Evapotranspiration patterns of the crops studied have been identified by the regular agroclimatology methodology and physiologically reliable protein ranges within crop yields were evaluated.
The results obtained suggest, that water footprint of cereals proved to be the lowest, however maize values were highly affected by the high variability of protein yield. Oilseed crops had considerably high protein yield with medium water efficiency. Alfalfa, potato and sugar beet water footprints were in accordance with their evapotranspiration patterns.
Protein based water footprint assessment seems to be more applicable in crop species evaluations than that of yield based methodologies.
Authors:F. Békés, K. Ács, Gy. Gell, Cs. Lantos, A-M. Kovács, Zs. Birinyi, and J. Pauk
Consumption of “gluten-containing” diet causes disease for a significant minority of people who consume foods derived from wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oat. The fact is, however, that in several types of diseases related to the consumption of “gluten-containing” cereals, the trigger compounds are not components of gluten. The current view of medical experts is that, excluding people suffering from celiac disease, the majority of individuals who are feeling better on the “wheat-free” or “gluten-free” diet could select a food containing much healthier, low level of fermentable oligosaccharides (often called as FODMAP). To satisfy the specific health related demands of certain consumer groups, the challenge is in front of cereal breeding to develop new, “healthier” germplasms, suitable to produce such products by the food industry. This report aims to give an overview of some aspects of recent developments in this booming area, (i) summarizing the up-to-date knowledge on cereals-related health disorders; (ii) reporting on the status of developing celiac-safe cereals, and finally (iii) highlighting the potential of developing “healthier” spelt-based cereal products through the progress in an ongoing spelt breeding program.
It is well established that the ingestion of cereal prolamins, such as gluten, causes the characteristic symptoms of celiac disease (CD) in people predisposed to it. DNA-based PCR method provides new ways to detect gluten in processed foodstuffs, such as bread. The aim of this work was to adapt a new primer pair combination and to initiate a carefully elaborated PCR methodology to experiment with DNA-based analysis. At first, the purity of cleaned DNA was verified using B49317 and A49855 chloroplast DNA primer pair. Then TR01/2 wheat specific PCR primer pair was used for checking the origin of the DNA, and P1/2 microsatellite (SSR) adapted primer pair for detecting allergen (gluten) specific residues. Method optimisation was achieved with cereal flour samples, then bread and dry pasta products from wheat were used, which were analysed as heat-treated samples with three primer pairs. The gluten specific primer pair was tested on cross-reactive cereals such as rye, barley, triticale and on some questionable cereals, such as oat, and pseudo-cereals, e.g. buck wheat and amaranth.