Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for :

  • "security risks" x
  • Social Sciences and Law x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Péter Ekler
and
Dániel Pásztor

Összefoglalás. A mesterséges intelligencia az elmúlt években hatalmas fejlődésen ment keresztül, melynek köszönhetően ma már rengeteg különböző szakterületen megtalálható valamilyen formában, rengeteg kutatás szerves részévé vált. Ez leginkább az egyre inkább fejlődő tanulóalgoritmusoknak, illetve a Big Data környezetnek köszönhető, mely óriási mennyiségű tanítóadatot képes szolgáltatni.

A cikk célja, hogy összefoglalja a technológia jelenlegi állapotát. Ismertetésre kerül a mesterséges intelligencia történelme, az alkalmazási területek egy nagyobb része, melyek központi eleme a mesterséges intelligencia. Ezek mellett rámutat a mesterséges intelligencia különböző biztonsági réseire, illetve a kiberbiztonság területén való felhasználhatóságra. A cikk a jelenlegi mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazások egy szeletét mutatja be, melyek jól illusztrálják a széles felhasználási területet.

Summary. In the past years artificial intelligence has seen several improvements, which drove its usage to grow in various different areas and became the focus of many researches. This can be attributed to improvements made in the learning algorithms and Big Data techniques, which can provide tremendous amount of training.

The goal of this paper is to summarize the current state of artificial intelligence. We present its history, introduce the terminology used, and show technological areas using artificial intelligence as a core part of their applications. The paper also introduces the security concerns related to artificial intelligence solutions but also highlights how the technology can be used to enhance security in different applications. Finally, we present future opportunities and possible improvements. The paper shows some general artificial intelligence applications that demonstrate the wide range usage of the technology.

Many applications are built around artificial intelligence technologies and there are many services that a developer can use to achieve intelligent behavior. The foundation of different approaches is a well-designed learning algorithm, while the key to every learning algorithm is the quality of the data set that is used during the learning phase. There are applications that focus on image processing like face detection or other gesture detection to identify a person. Other solutions compare signatures while others are for object or plate number detection (for example the automatic parking system of an office building). Artificial intelligence and accurate data handling can be also used for anomaly detection in a real time system. For example, there are ongoing researches for anomaly detection at the ZalaZone autonomous car test field based on the collected sensor data. There are also more general applications like user profiling and automatic content recommendation by using behavior analysis techniques.

However, the artificial intelligence technology also has security risks needed to be eliminated before applying an application publicly. One concern is the generation of fake contents. These must be detected with other algorithms that focus on small but noticeable differences. It is also essential to protect the data which is used by the learning algorithm and protect the logic flow of the solution. Network security can help to protect these applications.

Artificial intelligence can also help strengthen the security of a solution as it is able to detect network anomalies and signs of a security issue. Therefore, the technology is widely used in IT security to prevent different type of attacks.

As different BigData technologies, computational power, and storage capacity increase over time, there is space for improved artificial intelligence solution that can learn from large and real time data sets. The advancements in sensors can also help to give more precise data for different solutions. Finally, advanced natural language processing can help with communication between humans and computer based solutions.

Open access

A vállalati biztonsági háló meghatározó tényezői

Determining factors of the corporate safety-net

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Ágnes Kemendi

Összefoglalás.

A ma vállalata dinamikusan változó üzleti és kockázati környezetben működik, behálózzák az információs és kommunikációs technológiák. Mindez a biztonság területén is felkészültséget igényel. A sikeres vállalati működés fontos pillére a kívánt biztonsági szint megteremtése és fenntartása. Jelen tanulmány szakértői kutatás eredményeit tartalmazza, és a megalapozott elmélet módszertana alapján készült. A kutatás a nyereségorientált vállalatok szemszögéből vizsgálja a biztonság kérdéskörét, javaslatokat tesz, eszközöket mutat ebben a dinamikus és innovatív környezetben a biztonsági kérdések kezelésére, és azonosítja a vállalatot behálózó belső kontrollrendszer, az ún. vállalati biztonsági háló meghatározó tényezőit. A kutatás lényeges megállapítása, hogy a vállalati biztonsági háló kulcseleme a vezetői elkötelezettség.

Summary.

A company of these days operates in a dynamically changing business- and risk environment, surrounded by information and communication technologies; all this calls for thorough grounding in the field of security. This study contains the results of expert research and was prepared based on the methodology of grounded theory. The research examines the matter of security from the perspective of profit-oriented companies; makes suggestions and shows tools on how to ensure the smooth handling of security matters in this dynamic and innovative environment, and furthermore identifies what is the determining factor in the digital age behind the operation of the internal control system that encompasses the company, the so-called corporate safety-net. Security represents value for companies, its economic benefit must be shown to decision-makers. Resiliency is important from business and security perspective as well.

The safe operation of business processes requires the appropriate management of related risks, i.e., controlled processes, tools, or appropriate management of human risks are necessary. A network-like relationship can be identified between the key factors of corporate security. Safe operation requires safety-conscious, and rule-following behaviour of the human factors. Staying up-to-date in the digital era requires both up-to-date digital technology solutions and up-to-date users and developers of the solutions. This can be ensured through continuous learning and development. The security aspects of digital transformation projects should be diligently managed from the very beginning of the development process of the digital solution, as well as people should accept and support the changes. The design and operational testing of controls are the keys to ensure safe operation later on.

The key finding of the research is that the key element of the corporate safety-net is top management commitment that is the most important factor determining a company’s safety culture and corporate security.

Open access

Ellátásbiztonság az energiaátmenet időszakában

Security of supply in times of energy transition

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Ágnes Csermely
,
Péter Kaderják
,
Balázs Lengyel
,
Anna Mészégető
, and
Pálma Szolnoki

Összefoglalás.

A zöld energetikai átállás folyamatát leggyakrabban klímavédelmi szempontok alapján elemzik. Ebben a cikkben az energiabiztonságra gyakorolt hatását vizsgáljuk a megújuló energiahordozók térnyerésének. A mérleg pozitív serpenyőjében szerepel az energiafüggetlenséghez való hozzájárulás, a széles körben elérhető technológia és a fosszilis energiahordozókhoz képest kiszámítható árazás. A folyamat ugyanakkor számos kihívással is együtt jár, melyek közül kiemeljük a szezonális tárolás lehetőségének korlátosságát, az ellátásbiztonsághoz szükséges nem időjárásfüggő tartalékkapacitások fenntartásának nehézségeit, a hálózatüzemeltetéssel kapcsolatos problémákat, a digitalizációval együtt növekvő kiberbiztonsági kockázatokat és a kritikus alapanyagok koncentrációjából fakadó kihívásokat. E kihívásokra költséghatékony megoldásokat kell kialakítani, így a zöldenergia térnyerése komplex, a szakpolitika koordinációját igénylő, több évtizeden áthúzódó folyamat lesz.

Summary.

The green energy transition process is most often analysed from a climate protection perspective. In this article, we look at the impact of rising renewable generation on the security of energy supply. On the positive side there is renewables’ contribution to energy independence, their widespread availability, and their predictable pricing compared to fossil fuels. However, the process of increasing the share of renewables also carries several challenges, including the limitations of seasonal storage, the difficulties of maintaining non-weather-dependent reserve capacity for security of supply, grid management issues, the growing cyber security risks associated with digitalisation and the concentration of the availability of critical minerals. Cost-effective solutions to these challenges need to be developed, making the take-up of green energy a complex process that requires policy coordination over the next several decades.

Open access

Erőművek életciklus-elemzése a fajlagos anyagfelhasználás tükrében

Life-cycle analysis of power plants in the light of specific material use

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Zoltán Korényi

Összefoglaló. A dolgozat témája a különböző erőműfajták életciklusra vonatkozó fajlagos anyagigényének a vizsgálata. Az elemzések a nemzetközi szakirodalmi források felhasználásával történtek. Módszere, a bázisadatok elemzése, majd az anyagigényeknek az erőmű beépített teljesítményére és az életciklus alatt megtermelt villamosenergiára vonatkoztatott fajlagos értékek meghatározása. Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a nap- és szélerőművek elterjedésével a hagyományos erőművek által felhasznált fosszilis energiaforrások (pl. a szén) bent maradnak ugyan a földben, de cserébe az új technológia legyártásához a hagyományos anyagokból (beton, acél, alumínium, réz stb.) fajlagosan jóval nagyobb mennyiségekre lesz szükség. Emellett megnő a ritkán előforduló fémek (gallium, indium stb.) felhasználása, ami Európában, a lelőhelyek hiányában, új kockázatokkal jár.

Summary. The topic of the study is to determine the material use of different power plant types. This is a part of the known life cycle analysis (LCA). The aim of LCA is to determine the impact of human activity on nature. The procedure is described in the standards (ISO 14040/41/42/42). Under environmental impact we mean changes in our natural environment, air, water, soil pollution, noise and impacts on human health. In the LCA, the environmental impact begins with the opening of the mine, continues with the extraction and processing of raw materials, and then with the production of equipment, construction and installation of the power plant. This is followed by the commissioning and then operation of the power plants for 20-60 years, including maintenance. The cycle ends with demolition, which is followed by recycling of materials. The remaining waste is disposed of. This is the complex content of life cycle analysis. Its purpose is to determine the ecological footprint of man.

The method of the present study is to isolate a limited area from the complex LCA process. This means determining the amount of material needed to build different power plants, excluding mining and processing of raw materials. Commercially available basic materials are built into the power plant’s components.

The research is based on the literature available in the international area. The author studied these sources, analysed the data, and checked the authenticity. It was not easy because the sources from different times, for different power plants showed a lot of uncertainty. In overcoming the uncertainties, it was a help that the author has decades of experience in the realisation of power plants. It was considered the material consumption related to the installed electricity capacity of the power plant (tons/MW) as basic data.

The author then determined the specific material consumptions, allocated to the electric energy generated during the lifetime, in different power plants.

The calculation is carried out with the help of the usual annual peak load duration hours and the usual lifetime of the power plants.

The results show that with the spread of solar and wind energy, the fossil energy sources previously needed for conventional power plants will remain inside the Earth, but in exchange for the production of new technological equipment from traditional structural materials (concrete, steel, aluminium, copper and plastic), the special need multiplies. If we compare the power plants using renewable energy with the electric energy produced during the life cycle of a nuclear power plant, the specific installed material requirement of a river hydropower plant is 37 times, that of an onshore wind farm it is 9.6 times, and that of an outdoor solar power park is 6.6 times higher.

Another important difference is that wind turbines, solar panels and batteries also require rare materials that do not occur in Europe (e.g. gallium, indium, yttrium, neodymium, cobalt, etc.). This can lead to security risks in Europe in the long run.

Open access

Adattudományi innováció az egészségügy környezeti kihívásainak kezelésében: a nagy adatállományok hasznosításának jelentősége és lehetőségei a járványkezelésben

Innovation in Data Science to Address the Environmental Challenges of Health Systems: the Significance and Opportunities of the Analysis of Big Routine Datasets in Pandemic Management

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Péter Gaál
,
Tamás Joó
,
Tamás Palicz
,
Péter Pollner
,
István Schiszler
, and
Miklós Szócska

Összefoglaló. A COVID-19 járvány rámutatott arra, hogy az egészségügy kiemelt nemzetbiztonsági terület. Az egészségbiztonsági kockázati tényezőkkel szemben ellenálló egészségügyi rendszerek adattudományi innováció nélkül nem képzelhetők el. A közlemény két esettanulmányon keresztül mutatja be, hogy a nagy, működés során generálódó adatbázisok elemzése hogyan segítheti a járványokkal szembeni védekezést. A mobilcella információk elemzése a leghatékonyabb eszköz a tömeges népességmozgások nyomon követésére, így a vesztegzár intézkedések hatásának döntéstámogatási célú vizsgálatára, az oltásellenes közösségimédia-aktivitás hálózatelemzése pedig segíti az immunizációs kampányok tervezését és megvalósítását. Tanulmányunkban amellett érvelünk, hogy az egészségügy információ- és kommunikációtechnológia fejlődésére építő digitalizációja a kulcsa egy környezeti változásokkal megbirkózni képes egészségügy kialakításának.

Summary. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that health and health care should be considered a top priority area of national security. Health security risks can only be addressed with resilient health systems, which are not possible to be established without innovation in health data science. This publication introduces two examples to illustrate this point, both in the field of the management of epidemics. The first case provides a summary of our previous publication about how mobile phone Call Detail Records can be used to trace population movement to evaluate the effectiveness of movement restriction measures, such as the lock down, which was implemented in Hungary during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analysis shows that the collation and processing of Call Detail Records is an effective and inexpensive method to monitor mass population movement, and complements well the GPS-based smartphone method, which is more suitable for contact tracing and controlling of home quarantine of individuals. Our CDR-based method could be used by other countries, as well as to monitor movement between countries at the European level or internationally, with minimal adaptation effort. The second case introduces a study to gain insight into and better understanding of the potential impact of antivaccination social media activism on the Human Papilloma Virus vaccination campaign in Hungary in 2014. The network analysis of Facebook antivaccination posts and comments showed that during this period, the activists in this network were unable to reach a wider population and were not able to disturb the implementation of the expansion of the well functioning Hungarian public vaccination programme. Unfortunately, this is not the case regarding the COVID-19 vaccination campaign in progress, which suggests that the antivaccination activism is a real and serious security threat to be dealt with. In conclusion, we argue in this paper that the digital transformation of health care, based on the explosive development of information and communication technologies, is of key importance to the establishment of resilient health systems, which are able to cope efficiently with the challenges posed by the rapid environmental changes generated by societal transformation of the 21st century.

Open access

Kiberbiztonság a járműiparban

Automotive Cybersecurity

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
László Palkovics

Összefoglalás. Jelen cikk célja a járműipar egyes területeit érintő kiberbiztonsági kockázatok vizsgálata. Fentiekkel összhangban a cikk első részében a járműipar kiberbiztonsági szempontból releváns területei kerülnek meghatározásra. Ezt követően megtörténik a 2018. évben rögzített járműipari kibertámadások kockázatalapú értékelő elemzése.

Summary. Nowadays, cybersecurity has a critical impact to our lives. The Internet has also got a substantial role in our days since many people are constantly connected to the Internet (e.g., through online social networks) (Török et al. 2020a) . Besides, numerous personal and individual devices are connected. The growing number of connected devices and cyberspace expansion make our lives easier. However, this affects our privacy, with the potential for unauthorized use of personal information. In summary, life in a networked world carries unknown dangers.

In the future, many new risk factors are expected to occur, which will significantly increase the level of cybersecurity threats. Examining the aspects of the automotive industry, we should mention the summary of Cheng et al., which explores the field’s problems through novel theoretical solutions and related practical considerations. The book pays special attention to vehicle communication and networked systems. This book examines three main scientific directions for 5G-compliant vehicle-to-vehicle communication and cooperative vehicle control: modeling and testing capabilities for vehicle-to-vehicle communication, state-of-the-art technologies related to the physical layer, and MAC design procedures (Cheng et al. 2019) .

Cheng and colleagues (Cheng et al. 2019) examined the communication channels currently applied in the automotive industry or that are expected to be applied soon. Particular attention has been paid to examining the tasks and challenges that need to be addressed in order to support the spread of the connected transport systems in the future. The evaluation focused on the cooperation of connected vehicles. Their study also outlined the most important security risks and challenges associated with new communication solutions.

In the light of the above-mentioned considerations, it can be said that the emergence of connected and autonomous vehicles can make a significant contribution to the positive effects of cyberspace, but can also have a disadvantageous impact on the vulnerability of transport processes.

In line with this, it is important to examine and understand the vulnerabilities of connected and autonomous vehicles, the threats to vehicles. With this knowledge, automotive cybersecurity professionals’ responsibility is to develop appropriate security functions and capabilities for connected and autonomous vehicles and transport systems. This enables the systems to detect, evaluate, and, if necessary, treat different attacks and malicious interventions.

Along with the above objectives, many research studies in the automotive segment have already focused on identifying cybersecurity assessment frameworks for motor vehicles. Among these, it is worth highlighting the projects “HEAling Vulnerabilities to ENhance Software Security and Safety” and “E-safety vehicle intrusion protected applications” (Cheah et al. 2018) .

Open access

A mesterséges intelligencia az oktatásban: kihívások és lehetőségek

Artificial Intelligence in education: Challenges and perspectives

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Ferenc Dietz

Összefoglalás. A mesterséges intelligencia (továbbiakban: MI) fogalma az egyik napról a másikra robbant be a tudományos világból a nemzetközi és a hazai köztudatba. Az MI számos formában jelen van életünkben és az elkövetkező pár évtizeden belül pedig olyan megkerülhetetlen és hétköznapi technológiai megoldássá válik, mint ma az internet. Ezért érdemes megvizsgálni, hogy mit mondanak a kutatások az automatizáció hatásairól, mit gondolnak erről a munkáltatók, valamint a jövő munkavállalói. Létfontosságú, hogy megmutassuk az MI-ben rejlő társadalmi és piaci lehetőségeket, biztonsági veszélyeket, ezáltal növelve a magyar vállalkozók versenyképességét és a munkavállalók karrierlehetőségeit. Ennek egyik kezdőlépése a társadalom tudatosítása, valamint az MI oktatásban történő bevezetése, mely kiterjed a technológia iskolákban történő alkalmazásától, egészen használatának, fejlesztésének, biztonsági kockázatainak az oktatásáig.

Summary. The concept of artificial intelligence (hereinafter: AI) has exploded overnight from the scientific world into international and domestic public consciousness.

AI is present in many forms in our lives, and over the next few decades it is set to become as an essential and everyday tech solution as the Internet today.

Therefore, it is worth examining what research says about the effects of automation and what employers and future employees think about it. It is therefore of critical importance to demonstrate the social and market potentials and dangers for safety of AI, thereby increasing the competitiveness of Hungarian entrepreneurs and the career opportunities of the employees.

One of the first steps in this is to raise public awareness and introduce AI into education, ranging from the use of technology in schools to the education of its use, safety risk and development.

Is it worth thinking about what the distant future can bring to humanity? There are various professional predictions as to when we will invent the “real” AI, the master algorithm that controls each process, when we will achieve the singularity, from which AI will be able to program itself beyond human intelligence. Never, according to pessimists, between 2040–2100, according to optimists. Moreover, in the meantime, genetic engineering or a brain amplified with nanorobots may precede machine intelligence. What is certain is that cooperation and coexistence will be the cornerstone, so technical, philosophical, social, ethical and legal responses must be developed as long as the decision is in the hands of the US and not the AI. However, all this is a complex task, as logical contradictions in national regulations and political opinions, for example, are very difficult to handle for a rational algorithm. (Lovászy 2019) Regulation is needed that does not hinder economic development, but strengthens transparency and security.

The opportunities inherent in AI will be decisive for both Hungary’s competitiveness and the success of the individual in the coming decades. In my study, I pointed out that the conscious use and development of AI by education, the knowledge of security risks can be a breaking point for broad strata of our nation.

So, I first examined the impact of the use of AI on the labor market, what new generations of workers think and want, and how it all affects the educator, the content and tools of education, the methodology, and what are the benefits and risks. Then I flashed a couple of possible visions in which, whether we achieve singularity in the near or distant future or not, AI will be a crucial part of our everyday lives.

The pillars, technological and sectoral focuses, and transformative projects of the newly adopted Artificial Intelligence Strategy Foundation will crucially determine how much we will be able to exploit the opportunities of the decades ahead at the individual and state levels. In order to increase Hungary’s competitiveness, it calls for further research and wide-ranging professional consultations on the conditions (infrastructure, competencies, etc.) and modern methods for the successful integration of AI, the awareness of society and the education of different age groups.

Open access

Bűnügyi együttműködés a közel-keleti országokkal

International cooperation in criminal matters with Middle East and North African countries

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Krisztina Karsai

Összefoglalás. A bűnügyi együttműködés joga jelentős fejlődésen ment keresztül az uniós tagállamok egymás közötti viszonyaiban az integráció utóbbi 25 évében. Legfőbb jellemzője e fejlődésnek az együttműködési formák „eljogiasodása” és formalizálása, valamint genuin, új uniós jogintézmények megszületése, amely a tagállamok kölcsönös bizalmán alapul. A közel-keleti országokkal való együttműködés szükségessége egyre nyilvánvalóbb, azonban az ezekre a viszonyokra vonatkozó jogszabályi háttér nem létezik, vagy legfeljebb minimális, ami az egyén – akit érinthet az államok közötti bűnügyi együttműködési eljárás – számára e lehető legnagyobb biztonsági kockázatot hordozza. A tanulmány feltérképezi azokat a hatásokat, amelyek az uniós fejlődésből a harmadik államokkal való együttműködésre vonatkoznak (extraterritoriális hatások), és kimutatja, hogy az uniós jog többletkövetelményeket támaszt a tagállamok felé még ilyen, az uniós jog hatálya alá (látszólag) nem tartozó kérdésekben. Kitér a munka arra is, hogy az Európa Tanács jogfejlesztő tevékenységének hol van a helye ezen a spektrumon, valamint arra is, hogy az ENSZ bűnözéskontroll egyezményei miként játszhatnak szerepet a jelen témakörben.

Summary. For centuries, the issue of judicial cooperation has been part of the foreign policy of the state as a means of promoting the political interests of the rulers (governments) and its actual judicial or legal content could not be identified. Cooperation between law enforcement and judicial authorities of different countries is therefore the oldest form of action against internationally ‘mobile’ offenders or crimes of transnational nature. The original aim was to prevent the perpetrator from escaping prosecution, and cooperation was therefore exercised against the interests of the person concerned. It was only in the second half of the 20th century that academia recognised that a person involved in extradition proceedings (and any other form of international criminal cooperation) may have individual rights and interests that are separate from those of the state. Thus, the individual (accused, victim, witness) emerges as a third actor in the context of cooperation between two states – based on international law and sovereignty – and, especially with the firm establishment of human rights protection regimes, also takes a place in these proceedings. Thus, international cooperation now involves three interests: the State requesting assistance, the State providing assistance and the person concerned. The law on cooperation in criminal matters has evolved considerably in the EU Member States’ relations with each other over the last 25 years of integration and pursues new paths that are completely divorced from traditional thinking as described above. The main feature of this development is the ‘juridification’ and formalisation of forms of cooperation and the emergence of genuine new EU legal institutions based on mutual trust between Member States. The need for cooperation with the countries of the Middle East and North Africa is becoming increasingly apparent, but the legal framework for these relations is non-existent or minimal at best, which poses the greatest possible security risk for the individual who may be affected by the inter-state cooperation procedures in criminal matters. The study explores the implications of EU developments for cooperation with third states (extraterritorial effects) and shows that EU law imposes additional requirements on Member States even in such matters as they can be covered by EU law. Accordingly, the inter-state horizontal impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, the extraterritorial impact of EU crime control instruments and the explicit agreements on criminal cooperation are briefly discussed. The work also discusses the place of the Council of Europe’s law development activities in this spectrum: the European human rights protection, in particular with regard to extradition, entails additional requirements that Member States must comply with even when cooperating with a state outside the Council of Europe. Furthermore the role of the UN conventions on crime control is addressed by the study briefly.

Open access

Folyamatalapú, szabványos irányítási rendszerek a biztonságos és rugalmas vállalati működésért

Process-based, standardized management systems for secure and resilient corporate operations

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Pál Michelberger

Erazo-Chamorro, V, C., Arciniega-Rocha, R. P., Nagy, R., Babos, T., & Szabó, Gy. (2022) Safety Workplace: The Prevention of Industrial Security Risk Factors. Applied Sciences, Vol. 12. No. 21. 10726

Open access

Kiberbiztonság a koronavírus idején – a COVID–19 nemzetbiztonsági aspektusai

Cyber Security in the Time of the Coronavirus – National Security Aspects of COVID-19

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Tamás Palicz
,
Balázs Bencsik
, and
Miklós Szócska

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19 pandémia az információbiztonság területén új kihívásokat jelentett. A távolról végzett munka különböző formái jelentős mértékben növelték az online tér biztonsági kockázatát. Nőtt a hálózatok nagysága, az adatforgalom, és azon felhasználók száma, akiknek nem volt érdemi tapasztalatuk az online térben. A járvány ideje alatt a kibertérből érkező támadások szektoronként és időszakonként eltérő intenzitásúak voltak, a támadások típusa a phishingtől a malwareken keresztül az információs zavarkeltésig széles spektrumban változott. Számos jelenségnek nemzetbiztonsági vonatkozásai is voltak. Összefoglaló cikkünkben a fenti jelenségek nemzetközi és hazai tapasztalatait összegezzük, különös figyelmet szentelve az egészségügyi rendszernek, illetve a vakcinafejlesztés kibertérből érkező fenyegetéseinek.

Summary. During the COVID-19 pandemic, new challenges emerged in the field of information security and cyber security. Home office, home schooling and distance learning, or even telemedicine hit some organizations unprepared. Security risks in online space have increased significantly: the number of network endpoints and the number of computers, laptops and mobile devices have increased with network data traffic as well as the number of users who had no significant experience in online space. They appeared as a significant risk factor. This has been exacerbated, especially in healthcare, by the extremely high workload, which has made systems highly vulnerable. During the epidemic, attacks from cyberspace varied in intensity from sector to sector and period to period. Statistics from international and national organizations have shown that from the end of the first quarter of 2020, the number of cyber security incidents jumped sharply and then remained high even after a small decline. The types of attacks had an extremely wide range: from phishing through malware to misinformation, almost all types of attacks occurred. Many phenomena also had national security implications. Ransomware virus attacks on health have affected almost all health systems and reached high levels by the end of 2020 in particular. It was during the first period that, in an emergency case, there is thought to be an association between a ransomware virus attack and the death of a patient who was not admitted because of the attack.

In addition to distance measures and the associated increase in cyber threats, the emerging threats related to vaccination, which is central to the fight against the epidemic, should also be highlighted. This period has shed light on how many vulnerabilities there are, from vaccine development through drug trials to delivery to vaccines and the organization of vaccines, that cybercriminals are able to attack. In order to prevent and combat these threats and attacks, and to respond appropriately, complex, multidisciplinary collaborations are needed in which security science has a privileged place. In our review article, we summarize the international and national experiences of the above phenomena, paying special attention to the health care system and the threats coming from cyberspace in vaccine development.

Open access