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La Scala, N., J. Marques, G.T. Pereira and J.E. Cora. 2000. Shortterm temporal changes in the spatial variability model of CO 2 emissions from a Brazilian bare soil. Soil Biol. Biochem . 32: 1459

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In this paper, first the definitions of variability and ergodicity are discussed. This is followed by an overview of variography, and the importance of sequential stochastic simulation is emphasized. The main uncertainties of variograms are discussed, followed by the methods for decreasing this uncertainty. It is stressed that additional geologic information can be obtained from variograms, even beyond the ranges of influence. Possibilities of local evaluation of the gh values and ranges of influence are presented. The main idea of the paper is that the gh values and the ranges of influence are continuous random variables. Up to now variograms were evaluated mainly for geomathematical purposes and their direct geologic evaluation was neglected. The author presents examples of such kinds of evaluation.

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Abstract  

The reproducibility, the small scale as well as the large scale variability of137Cs extracted sequentially from the soil by using a modified Tessier procedure was investigated at several grassland sites in Bavaria/Germany and in the Chemobyl area. Because undisturbed grassland soils are never homogeneous with respect to their soil properties, all sequential extractions at the German sites were carried out at each plot separately for different soil layers (e.g., 0–2, 2–5, 5–10, 10–15, 15–20 and 20–30 cm). The results show that the coefficients of variation (CV) for the reproducibility of the extraction procedure for137Cs was (with some exceptions) around 10–20% for all fractions. For the small scale variability of137Cs (samples within an area of 10×10m2) the values for theCV were (again with a few exceptions) in the same range. Compared to that, the large scale variability of extractable137Cs (random soil samples within an area of 100×200 km2) was higher for all fractions, even though only moderately. The implications of these results with respect to a sampling design are discussed.

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We analyzed long-term data related to temporal and spatial variation in fish assemblages from five sites along the Suquía River Basin (Córdoba, Argentina). We aimed at determining whether water quality variations generate changes in fish assemblage structure and composition along the river. Despite deterioration of water quality recorded along the basin, fish assemblages were characterized as qualitatively persistent and quantitatively stable, indicating that the specific composition were relatively constant over time. However, on a temporal scale, fish assemblages from the most polluted areas responded to the water quality degradation with a greater variation of species abundance than those from pristine sites. On a spatial scale, changes in fish assemblage structure were related with watershed disturbance gradient and indicated a strong association between fish species distribution and water quality variation. The alterations found in our study suggest a potential imbalance of fish assemblage structure in the long term.

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The paper deals with the approaches to the response analysis of large transport and lifeline structures. The background theory for simplified analysis is presented. Seismic inputs represent the cases of explosion impacts and large near field earthquake effects. 3DOF and 6DOF input models are based on surface wave theory and applied for calculations and shaking table experiments. Examples of seismic motion simulations are those obtained during large MASTER shaking table tests in Enel.Hydro-ISMES Seriate, Italy in the framework of EC international projects.

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properties on the spatial variability of soil water content: evidence from sensor network data and inverse modeling Vadose Zone Journal . 13 . ( 12 ) 112 . doi: 10.2136/vzj2014.07.0099 Q u

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Csillag, F., Kertész, M. & Kummert, Á. , 1996. Sampling and mapping of heterogeneous surfaces: multi-resolution tiling adjusted to spatial variability. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 10 .(7) 851

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’s nitrogen balance (PhD-thesis) Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, UGent Van Meirvenne M. — Hofman G.: 1989. Spatial variability of soil nitrate nitrogen after potatoes and its change during winter — Plant and Soil vol

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Abstract  

The extent of soil erosion in some Spanish semiarid regions has caused great concern regarding the sustainability of soil resources. Accelerated soil erosion, particularly in some Mediterranean areas, is likely to be one of the main environmental problems associated with climate change. Fallout 137Cs has been shown to provide a reliable basis for assessing soil erosion rates in different environments around the world. However, existing information concerning the spatial variation of 137Cs inventories at reference sites has identified a need for further investigation of the factors affecting their spatial variability in semiarid environments, where stony and skeletal soils are predominant. Reference sites at three locations in the central Ebro valley were selected to investigate the 137Cs content of several grain size fractions. Each site included both natural vegetated conditions and cultivated land and the three sites were characterized by different values of mean annual rainfall. The results obtained demonstrate the influence of lithology, land use and climate on the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories that increase from 1190, to 1500 and 1710 Bq·m−2 with increasing annual rainfall values from 300 to 500 mm at the study sites. The soils on marls at the Valareña site had the highest proportion of 137Cs in the coarse fractions of cultivated soils (12%) in comparison with soils developed on limestones at Loma Negra (5%), whereas no 137Cs content was found in the coarse fractions of soils on glacis-terrace materials at Peñaflor. The 137Cs reference inventories are higher in soils on marls and sands at cultivated locations at Valareña and Peñaflor, but have similar values in soils at cultivated and uncultivated locations on limestones at Loma Negra. Therefore, in absence of level undisturbed soils with natural vegetation cover, cultivated flat soils on hard rocks could provide reliable reference inventories.

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