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Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Jonathan F. Cogliano
,
Roberto Veneziani
, and
Naoki Yoshihara

industries shown in Figures 3 and 4 can be seen as capturing some of these differences in value creation and realisation. The terminology “unproductive” is unfortunate given the connotations associated with the term. The terminology

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, sociology adds passions other than the economic, and various forms of irrationality (non-logical behavior in Pareto's terminology). Pareto's contributions to economic sociology can be illustrated by his explanation of why protectionism can

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commodity farms indicated a continuous increase of net farm income from PLN 10.0 thousand into PLN 10.9 thousand in 2011. 2 The category of “agricultural holdings” (according to FADN terminology) includes both legal persons (agricultural enterprises in the

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amount player A expects back, and also he/she actually gets back from player B. With the above terminology, we formulated a discrete differential

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). In a more general terminology, we can model Eqs. (6) and (7) as the Markov-switching regression model that will let the parameters to vary over the unobserved states: yt

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For the last few decades, considerable attention has been paid to the methodology of mainstream economics. It is not mere chance that economics is surrounded by methodological debates. If its relevance is at stake, this can be either refuted or proven most efficiently at a methodological level. Arguments for and against mainstream economics underline the methodological homogeneity of mainstream economics, while serious, though almost neglected, arguments can be found for a view according to which the long history of mainstream economics can be described as a sequence of methodological breaks. I argue, firstly, for a sharp demarcation by new classical macroeconomics from the Friedmanian instrumentalism and, secondly, for the realism of new classicals. I strive to identify the epistemological principles underlying Lucas’ models and to highlight the signs of that demarcation as well. I concentrate on the techniques by which new classicals could set their models into an indirect relationship with reality. It is also highlighted that the common terminology, according to which the assumptions of abstract economic models are uniformly regarded as “unrealistic”, actually refers to two different techniques. From these approaches, there is only one which can be justifiably labelled as realist.

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The roots of Western societal evolution

A concept of Europe by Jenő Szűcs

Society and Economy
Author:
László Zsinka

Jenõ Szűcs wrote his essay entitled Sketch on the three regions of Europe in the early 1980s in Hungary. During these years, a historically well-argued opinion emphasising a substantial difference between Central European and Eastern European societies was warmly received in various circles of the political opposition. In a wider European perspective Szűcs used the old “liberty topos” which claims that the history of Europe is no other than the fulfillment of liberty. In his Sketch, Szűcs does not only concentrate on questions concerning the Middle Ages in Western Europe. Yet it is this stream of thought which brought a new perspective to explaining European history. His picture of the Middle Ages represents well that there is a way to integrate all typical Western motifs of post-war self-definition into a single theory. Mainly, the “liberty motif”, as a sign of “Europeanism” — in the interpretation of Bibó’s concept, Anglo-Saxon Marxists and Weber’s social theory —, developed from medieval concepts of state and society and from an analysis of economic and social structures. Szűcs’s historical aspect was a typical intellectual product of the 1980s: this was the time when a few Central European historians started to outline non-Marxist aspects of social theory and categories of modernisation theories, but concealing them with Marxist terminology.

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): The Construction of Social Reality . New York : The Free Press . Silaški , N. – Kilyeni , A. ( 2011 ): The MONEY IS A LIQUID Metaphor in Economic Terminology – a Contrastive

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. First, the concepts of Industry 4.0 are described and related terminologies and challenges are explained for clarity and completeness. Then, the Hungarian strategy and measures for Industry 4.0 are summarised and Hungary’s status in digitalisation and in

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 method and terminology of Wang et al. (2017) . Using this approach first to an input-output price model we can distinguish transmission effects resulting from local, simple, and complex global value chains, and specific countries and industries. Based on the

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