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19 195 201 Wang, L., Flores, R.A. 1999. Effect of different wheat classes and their flour milling streams on textural properties of flour tortillas

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The fat content of Bologna-type turkey sausages was partially replaced with pea fiber or potato starch. Textural properties of full fat turkey sausage were mainly restored in sausages when fat was partially replaced with some levels of pea fiber (0.6, 1.2%) or potato starch (1.9%). Authors observed significant correlation (P<0.01) between instrumentally measured values of hardness and chewiness and sensory ratings of low fat sausages.

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The aim of the work was to develop a method to evaluate the effect of bread improver dosage on bread crumb texture. Standard breads were prepared to get different crumb structures when bread improver was added to the flour in a concentrate of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%. The additive used in the experiments contains lecithin, ascorbic acid and alpha-amylase. Rheological tests and image analysis were performed to predict the effect of the additive. Hardness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness and springiness were determined by rheological method. The rheological properties neither separately nor combined were able to discriminate the different bread crumb groups. Image processing method was developed to determine the ratio of dark to light area of the images taken of the bread slices. It was concluded that both rheological and visual parameters should be taken into account to characterize bread crumb texture.

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not only provides the sweetness of the product, especially in foods, but is also an essential ingredient for the formation of its rheological and textural properties ( Zahn et al., 2013 ). In addition, fat provides various advantages such as higher

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Abstract  

Properties of two catalysts tailored in the laboratory conditions by sulfation of commercial Zr-hydroxide and Zr-hydroxide of nitrate origin were compared with those of commercial SO4-Zr-hydroxide. Equally thermally treated samples in the temperature interval 500–700°C, and having the same amount of sulfur, show different properties indicating memory effect of their solid parent materials. The catalyst obtained by sulfation of commercial Zr-hydroxide differs in amount of residual sulfates upon calcination from other two catalysts. The instability of sulfates in the previous case might be connected to the lowest surface area values of catalyst and the highest fraction of monoclinic phase observed at all applied calcination temperatures.

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The aim of the current paper was to elucidate the influence of temperature and time on acrylamide formation and physico-chemical characteristics of bread. Additionally, the effect of asparaginase addition to bran was evaluated. With increasing baking time and temperature, the amount of acrylamide (µg kg−1) increased. The results indicated that the acrylamide concentration in treated samples with asparaginase was significantly less than those without asparaginase treatment. Based on Pearson’ test, it was found that there was a significant correlation between baking temperature and acrylamide concentration (R=0.99, P=0.025; and R=0.98, P=0.026 for the samples prepared by baking for 2.5 min and 3 min, respectively). The firmness of bread samples increased with increasing baking temperature (P&gt;0.05), while asparaginase addition did not significant affect the textural characteristics of the final product. Breads baked at 320 °C for 3 min were more acceptable by the sensory panel in terms of their texture and chewiness, whereas the samples baked at 370 °C for 2.5 min had the lowest score in comparison to other evaluated samples.

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Abstract  

The purified bentonite parent clay, fraction ≤; 2 mm of montmorillonite type, has been pillared by various polyhydroxy cations, Al, AlFe and AlCu, using conventional pillaring methods. The thermal behavior of PILCs was investigated by combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA, TG) and low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (LTNA). Thermal stability of Al-, AlFe- and AlCu-PILC samples was estimated after isothermal pretreatment in static air on the temperatures 300, 500, 600 and 900C. Crucial structural changes were not registered up to 600C, but the fine changes in interlayer surrounding and porous/microporous structure being obvious at lower temperatures, depending on the nature of the second pillaring ion. AlFe-PILC showed higher thermal stability of the texture, the AlCu-PILC having lower values and lower thermal stability concerning both overall texture and micropore surface and volume. Poorer thermal stability of AlCu-PILC sample at higher temperatures was confirmed, the presence of Cu in the system contributing to complete destruction of aluminum silicate structure, by 'extracting' aluminum in stabile spinel form.

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confectionary systems. Here, we investigated differences in the texture properties, the viscosity and thermal properties of the blends. Materials and methods Commercial sugar (sucrose), stevia and xylitol were used in this study. Palm oil was purchased from

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Cleanio L. Lima, Hélvio S. A. de Sousa, Santiago J. S. Vasconcelos, Josué M. Filho, Alcemira C. Oliveira, Francisco F. de Sousa, and Alcineia C. Oliveira

by the Raman results. This fact limits the selectivity to acrolein and hydroxyacetone due to the heavy compound formation. In addition, the characteristics of the sulfated AlSBA-15 molecular sieve in terms of acidity, textural properties and

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different precursors with a zirconium loading of 2% (w/w) and palladium loading of 0.5% (w/w). One of the routes employed in this work is the sol-gel method, known as a route that provides the possibility to control the textural properties of materials. In

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