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456 235 238 Christ, C., O. Hillel, L. Matus and J. Sweeting. 2003. Tourism and Biodiversity . Conservation International, Washington

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The aim of the present study is to extend the applicability of MRI measurements similar to those used in human diagnostics to the examination of water barriers in living plants, thus broadening their use in natural sciences. The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, and Phillyrea angustifolia, or false olive, were chosen as test plants. The MRI measurements were carried out on three samples of each plant in the same position vis-a-vis the MRI apparatus using a Siemens Avanto MRI scanner. Two different relaxation times were employed, T1, capable of histological mapping, and T2, used for the examination of water content. In the course of the analysis, it was found that certain histological formations and branching cause modifications to the intensity detected with relaxation time T2. Furthermore, these positions can also be found in T1 measurements. A monotonic correlation (cucumber: ρ = 0.829; false olive: ρ = –0.84) was observed between the T1 and T2 measurements. In the course of the statistical analysis of the signal intensities of the xylems it was concluded that they cannot be regarded as independent in a statistical sense; these changes rather depend on the anatomic structure of the plant, as the intensity profile is modified by nodes, leaves and branches. This serves as a demonstration of the applicability of MRI to the measurement of well know plant physiological processes. The special parametrization required for this equipment, which is usually used in human diagnostics, is also documented in the present study.

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We present a test involving a large number of data-analytical techniques to identify a rigorous numerical classification method optimising on statistically identified faithful species. The test follows a stepwise filtering process involving various numerical-classification tools. Five steps were involved in the testing: (1) evaluation of 322 classification tools using Optim-Class 1; (2) comparison of 20 best performing methods by standardising the various performances across a range of fidelity values using OptimClass 1 and OptimClass 2, to assess the effectiveness of the agglomerative clustering and one divisive technique; (3) calculation and comparison of Uniqueness values and ISAMIC (Indicator Species Analysis Minimising Intermediate Constancies) scores of the resulting classifications; (4) comparison of different classifications by analysing the similarities of the resulting synoptic tables using faithful species, assuming that clusters with similar faithful species represent corresponding vegetation types, and (5) final selection of the single best method based on an expert review of non-geometric internal evaluators, NMDS ordinations and mapped classification solutions. A complex data set, representing many forest vegetation types and consisting of 506 relevés of 20 m × 20 m sampled in the indigenous forests of Mpumalanga Province (South Africa), was tested. Analysis of Uniqueness provided insight into which methods produced classifications that did not share faithful species. The analysis of synoptic table similarity showed that the classification results were at most 88% similar, while in the most divergent case similarity of only 50% was achieved. OptimClass eliminated poorly performing numerical-classification combinations and highlighted the best performing methods. Yet it was unable to reveal the single best performing method unequivocally across the range of fidelity values used. In such cases, we suggest the solution can be sought in relying on involving external data through expert opinion. Ordinal Clustering and TWINSPAN produced the most outlying classification results. Flexible beta clustering (β= −0.25) in combination with Bray-Curtis coefficient, standardised by sample unit totals, produced the most informative result for our data set when using informal expert-defined ecological and biogeographical judgement criteria. We recommend that the performance of a set of methods be tested prior to selecting the final classification approach.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Aloudat
,
A. Papp
,
N. Magyar
,
L. Simon Sarkadi
, and
A. Lugasi

): Ínyencségek a múltból és a jelenből. A BGE-KVIK legjobb receptjei. (Delicacies from the past and the present. Best recipes from Budapest Business School Faculty of Commerce, Hospitality and Tourism), Budapesti Gazdasági Egyetem, Kereskedelmi, Vendéglátóipari

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The Karnak Temple is a tourist attraction site in Luxor, Egypt. Sacred Lake lies inside the Karnak Temple, it is an important lake from both historical and touristical point of views. About 4,000 years ago the ancient Egyptians used this lake as a saint place. The priests were washing in the lake four to five times a day. The lake area is about 3,200 m2. The lake was shallow before 1985 and the floras of the lake had been monospecific cyanoprokaryote (Microcystis flos-aquae or Spirulina labyrinthiformis). In 1985 Nile water was circulated through the lake by the so-called French project. In 1993, the pumping of Nile water was stopped and the water became stored and not renewed again. The increase in the water level of the lake since 1985 followed by stopping the water circulation in 1993 have a negative impact, making the lake similar to a fishpond. Now, sixteen taxa of cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta were determined in the lake together with dense vegetation of the aquatic plant Potamogeton pectinatus L. during the two expeditions in April and October 1996. The presence of this diversified flora, especially the bad smell resulting from the growth of algae and aquatic plant has adverse effects on tourism. Restoration of the ancient picture of the lake is recommended and some suggestions were emphasised in this study. We would like to call attention for protection of the lake by continuous cleaning. This suggestion will help in restoring the lake to its ancient status.

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Nutrition labelling, soon obligatory for all food circulating on the EU market, is a topic of interest since being an important tool that shapes consumers´ conscious food choices. The study tested the influence of nutrition knowledge on the use of labelled nutrition information on 200 Croatian consumers. A comprehensive three-section questionnaire comprising demographic data, a nutrition knowledge test, and questions about the use of nutrition information provided on food labels was employed. Cluster analysis identified three participating clusters (having good, medium, or poor nutrition knowledge). Answers to 70% of the questionnaire items were correct, but the application of nutrition knowledge in an everyday food selection scored low. Best knowledgeable participants (middle-aged with university degree) tend to browse the nutrition label per se, information on sugar content, fat content, the list of ingredients, and the list of additives. The same group of consumers consider nutrition labelling policy helpful and find the information provided on nutrition labels understandable and useful in conscious food choices. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed the use of labelled nutrition information to be significantly influenced by education and nutrition knowledge. Bottom-line, consumers consider nutrition labelling important, but do not pay close attention to information on certain nutrients.

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tourism development and vegetation environment in Luya Mountain nature reserve I. Quality analysis of vegetation environment . Acta Ecol. Sin. 22 : 1765 – 1773 . Chu , X.H. , Y. Xie

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Cheng, Z. H. and J.-T. Zhang. 2003. Difference between tourism vegetation landscapes of different distance. Journal of Mountain Science 21: 647–652 Zhang J.-T. Difference between

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to tourism based on a cellular automata model. In: L. Noronha, N. Lourenco, J.P. Lobo-Ferreira, A. Lleopart, E. Feoli, K. Sawkar and A.G. Chachadi (eds). Coastal Tourism, Environment and Sustainable Local Development , Chapter 15. TERI, New Delhi

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Community Ecology
Authors:
M. L. Allen
,
M. J. Farmer
,
J. D. J Clare
,
E. R. Olson
,
J. Van Stappen
, and
T. R. Van Deelen

tourism in Amboseli National Park, Kenya . Tour. Manage. 29 : 751 –760. Pauli , J.N. 2005 . Evidence for long-distance swimming capabilities in red squirrels

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