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At least some individual practitioners of adventure sports, recreation, and tourism display all the characteristic criteria of powerful behavioral addiction ( Buckley, 2012 , 2015a ; Heirene, Shearer, Roderique-Davies, & Mellalieu, 2016

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Introduction Over the past 20 years in Peru, ayahuasca tourism has developed into a thriving business ( Grunwell, 1998 ). Several studies have assessed the reasons of use and found that this is in part due to the increasing

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors:
Kinga Balla
,
István Gyene
,
Klára Szentágothai
,
Zsuzsa Bak
, and
Györgyi Mezei

Background: The aim of this study was to compare fitness levels of 8–13 years old healthy and asthmatic boys from 1985 and 2004. Subjects and methods: The swimmer asthmatics from 1985 (SA1, n = 40) and from 2004 (SA2, n = 26) participated in the same therapeutic swimming training. Healthy, non-swimmer children (NonSH1 in 1985, n = 41 and NonSH2 in 2004, n = 54) participated in physical education classes. Results: Comparing the fitness outcomes of all boys from 1985 with that obtained in 2004 a significant difference was found ( p < 0.0001, boys from 1985 had better results). Fitness of NonSH1 was significantly better than fitness of NonSH2 ( p < 0.0001), similarly SA1 had better fitness results than SA2 ( p = 0.0003). Conclusion: There was a trend between 1985 and 2004, so that the fitness of healthy and asthmatic children worsened. Further investigations are needed to clarify the medical and social aspects of the results.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors:
Kinga Balla
,
Alexandra Szabó
,
István Gyene
,
Zsuzsa Jáki
, and
Györgyi Mezei

Purpose: The aim of our investigation was to compare the quality of life (QoL), anxiety and depressive symptoms of regular swimmer and non-swimmer young asthmatics. Methods: 24 swimmer asthmatics, who took part in a complex swimming exercise programme, and 51 non-swimmer asthmatics were asked to fill out the Hungarian validated form of the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory for Children (H. STAIC) and the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Results: No difference was found between swimmer and non-swimmer asthmatic groups regarding QoL, anxiety and depressive symptoms. In the group of swimmer asthmatics significant activity impairment was found in PAQLQ ( p < 0.0001). Non-swimmer asthmatic girls show significantly more anxiety symptoms than boys ( p = 0.023). Furthermore, girls have a tendency to show more depressive symptoms compared to boys. Depressive symptoms are significantly fewer in the swimmer and non-swimmer asthmatic boy groups than in the non-swimmer healthy Hungarian boy population sample. No age-, asthma severity- or BMI-specific correlations were found in the swimmer or non-swimmer asthmatics group regarding PAQLQ, H. STAIC or CDI. Conclusions: Regular swimming training has several positive effects, but when analyzing the children’s QoL, anxiety and depressive symptoms in the swimmer and non-swimmer asthmatics group, only few subgroup-specific differences were found.

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Burroughs and Ginsberg ( 1963 ) brought the beverage to the attention of a small non-scientific international audience. Besides the folk-healing tradition of the upper Amazonas, a flourishing cross-cultural ayahuasca tourism has lately developed during the

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(Central Statistical Office) : A nemzetközi idegenforgalom és a turisztikai kereslet jellemzői 2004 (Data on the international tourism and the tourist business in 2004) (In Hungarian) KSH-kiadvány (Newsletter of KSH), Budapest , 2005 . [24]. Goodyer

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A Magas-Tátra szenvedélyes orvosa: Guhr Mihály (1873–1933)

The passionate doctor of the High Tatras: Mihály Guhr (1873–1933)

Orvosi Hetilap
Author:
László Kiss

B. The beginnings of sport tourism in Slovakia. [A sportturizmus kezdetei Szlovákiában.] Komárom, 2021; 34–47. [Hungarian] 12 Vértesi P. The

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Aim: To analyse and compare the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme), ACTN3 (actinin-3) and AMPD1 (adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1) genetic variants, oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) of elite high altitude mountaineers and average athletes. Methods: Elite Bulgarian alpinists (n = 5) and control group of athletes (n = 72) were recruited. VO2max was measured using a treadmill graded protocol. HR, BP and BMI were recorded. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Chi 2-test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Alpinists showed significantly higher frequencies of 60% ACE I allele (p = 0.002), 50% ACTN3 X allele (p = 0.032) and 30% AMPD1 T allele (p = 0.003) compared to controls — 39%, 36%, 13%, respectively. ACE ID genotype prevalence and null DD genotype were observed in mountaineers. Higher absolute VO2max, but no differences in VO2max ml kg−1 min−1, HR, oxygen pulse, blood pressure and BMI were found. Conclusions: The ID genotype and higher frequencies of ACE I allele could contribute to successful high altitude ascents in mountaineers. The genetic make-up of the two mountaineers who made the summit of Mt Everest was distinctive, revealing ACE ID genotype, mutant ACTN3 XX and AMPD1 TT genotypes.

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While the effects of instantaneous, single-bout exposure to hypoxia have been well researched, little is known about the autonomic response during, or as an adaptation to, repeated intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) in a sedentary population. Resting heart rate variability (HRV) and exercise capacity was assessed in 16 participants (8 receiving IHE, [Hyp] and 8 receiving a placebo treatment [C]) before and after a 4-week IHE intervention. Heart rate variability was also measured during an IHE session in the last week of the intervention. Post-intervention, the root mean squared successive difference (rMSSD) increased substantially in Hyp (71.6 ± 52.5%, mean change ± 90% confidence limits) compared to C suggesting an increase in vagal outflow. However, aside from a likely decrease in submaximal exercise heart rate in the Hyp group (–5.0 ± 6.4%) there was little evidence of improved exercise capacity. During the week 4 IHE measurement, HRV decreased during the hypoxic exposure (reduced R-R interval: –7.5 ± 3.2%; and rMSSD: –24.7 ± 17.3%) suggesting a decrease in the relative contribution of vagal activity. In summary, while 4 weeks of IHE is unlikely to improve maximal exercise capacity, it may be a useful means of increasing HRV in people unable to exercise.

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Background and aims

Perceived stress has been regarded as a risk factor for problematic social networking site (SNS) use, yet little is known about the underlying processes whereby confounding variables may mediate or moderate this relationship. To answer this question, this study examined whether depression and anxiety mediated the relationship between perceived stress and problematic SNS use, and whether these mediating processes were moderated by psychological resilience and social support.

Methods

Participants were 641 Chinese college students who completed anonymous questionnaires measuring perceived stress, depression/anxiety, psychological resilience, social support, and problematic SNS use.

Results

The results showed that (a) depression/anxiety mediated the relationship between perceived stress and problematic SNS use; (b) the mediating effects of depression/anxiety on the association between perceived stress and problematic SNS use were moderated by psychological resilience. Specifically, the mediating effects of depression/anxiety were stronger for individuals with lower levels of psychological resilience, compared with those with higher levels of psychological resilience; and (c) the mediating effects of depression/anxiety were not moderated by social support, although social support was negatively related to depression/anxiety.

Discussion and conclusion

This study can contribute to a better understanding of how and when perceived stress increases the risk of problematic SNS use, and implies the importance of enhancing psychological resilience in preventing problematic SNS use.

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