1 Introduction Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) gained popularity in wastewater treatment since it is a single tank design, flexible system, with relatively easy automation [ 1 ]. The system configuration is quite simple; the tank has an inlet and
. , Bakacsi Z. , Zajzon G.
PVA-PAA hydrogel micro-carrier for the improvement of phase separation efficiency of biomass in wastewater treatment . Pollack Periodica , Vol. 12 , No. 2 , 2017 , pp. 91 – 102 .
consumption (Morocco, China, USA), with the EU showing a huge phosphorus consumption (1 kg P/inhabitant/year) [ 3 ], [ 4 ]. In Europe (in Germany and Austria already legally binding), access to phosphoruscontaining sewage treatment is changing, and more
. , Avezzù F.
To centralise or to decentralise: An overview of the most recent trends in wastewater treatment management , Journal of Environmental Management , Vol. 94 , No. 1 , 2012 , pp. 61 – 68 .
Managing waste becomes a much more complex task, when logistic changes have to be implemented to combine selective waste collection, needed to increase the rate of recycling, with traditional residual waste collection. This complexity is complicated further by the ever increasing choices of methods and technologies available for the treatment of collected waste.Using available resources efficiently, minimizing environmental effects and operation costs should be the guiding ideas behind optimization of a waste management system, even though often these ideas are in conflict with each other. In this phase of research those factors which have a major influence on system costs are analyzed.
A welded steel protective cover used for the heat treatment of steel sheet coils is investigated. The protective cover is made of austenitic stainless steel and consists of three main segments, welded together, which have 1400 mm height each. The plate thicknesses at the lower, middle and upper segments are different. The investigation aimed to improve the lifetime and the number of heat cycles of the protective cover by changing the geometry, the effect of the thicknesses and the material. Damaged covers have been evaluated, made calculations of stress and deformations, and carried out a series of finite element simulations. Both horizontal and vertical corrugated sheets were simulated and compared. The non-corrugated plates were also investigated, but their performance was behind the corrugated ones. The original geometry and that of the horizontal corrugated plate are identical from the stress level point of view. The vertical position of the corrugated plate provided a better result than the horizontal one. The calculated and simulated results for the original geometry are close to the measured damage.