infections by direct invasion and systemic dissemination such as bloodstream infections, septic arthritis, meningitis [ 1–5 ]. Staphylococcal strains with richer virulence arsenal are responsible also for toxin mediated diseases such as toxic shock and
prevalent invasive isolates in most European countries [ 5 ]. This is a pathogen that possesses a huge variety of virulence factors, including adhesins, hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, catalase, plasmacoagulase, DNase, proteases, various
) Wassenaar TM, Gaastra W: Bacterial virulence, where to draw the line? FEMS Microbiol Letters 201, 1–7 (2001) Wassenaar TM, Alter T (2012): Virulence genes in microbial risk assessment of probiotic organisms: what do genome sequences tell us
, Al-Marzoqi AH , Zahraa MA , Shalan AA : Molecular and phenotypic study of virulence genes in a pathogenic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various clinical origins by PCR: profiles of genes and toxins . Res J Pharm, Biol Chem Sci 7
Virulence of the two isolates of Beauveria bassiana, BB2 and AM-118, were evaluated on adults of a predatory hemipteran, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius by conidial bioassay and enzymatic activities. Results of the bioassay revealed LC50 of 37×104 and 15×103 spore/ml for isolates BB2 and AM-118, respectively. Activities of chitinase, lipase and ALP showed the higher activity in the media inoculated by AM-118 while no statistical differences were observed in activity of ACP. Although no statistical differences were found in general protease and Pr1 activities but activity of Pr2 in AM-118 was significantly higher than that of BB2. Activity of general esterases demonstrated no statistical differences when α- and β-naphtyl acetate were used as substrates but activity of glutathione S-transferase in AM-118 was higher than that of BB2 by using CDNB and DCNB as specific reagents. Results of the current study indicated higher virulence of isolate AM-118 against adults of A. spinidens by lower LC50 value and higher activities of the enzymes involved in pathogenicity. Recruiting of these isolates against C. suppressalis must be considered by their adaptability of A. spinidens. Moreover, AM-118 has been isolated from rice fields of northern Iran, so it may somehow indicate a type of host-microorganism interaction.
The fitness cost associated with virulence was analyzed in a local Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) population. Pathogenic and molecular analyses were carried out on seven pathogen isolates including five progeny isolates of five P. halstedii races arising from two parental ones. P. halstedii isolates showed significant differences for all aggressiveness criteria and important genetic variations. Two cases of relationship (positive and negative) between virulence and aggressiveness for progeny isolates as compared with parental ones were found. Mean virulence cost values varied between 19.9% for positive relationship between the two components of pathogenicity and 50.8% for negative one. For solving the presence of two cases in pathogenicity, the relationship between virulence and aggressiveness among the isolates of three different races localized in the same genetic clade was positive. The hypothesis explaining these cases are discussed.
Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), causing net blotch in barley, is an important and frequently isolated leaf pathogen across the globe. The virulence spectrum of Ptt from North Africa including Morocco is poorly understood. Sixteen barley genotypes were challenged, at seedling stage, with 15 Ptt isolates that were collected from different agroecological zones of Morocco. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The ANOVA revealed highly significant (P < 0.001) effects of genotype (G), isolate (I) and G×I interaction explaining 23.2, 62.5, and 13.9% of the variation, respectively. Therefore, the current study revealed highly diverse virulence pattern of Moroccan isolates. Furthermore, the results indicated that minor virulence of Ptt isolates dominated over virulence interaction. In addition, Taffa (6-rowed) and Aglou (2 rowed), had the highest level of resistance to Ptt, while Coast and Rabat071 were the most susceptible genotypes. Pt2, Pt7, Pt8 and Pt4 were being the most virulent isolates, while Pt10 and Pt11 were the least virulent isolates. The emergence of the new Ptt pathotypes, which were highly virulent to durable resistance in Rabat071 posed a risk of breaking down the currently deployed resistance to net blotch in Morocco. A careful evaluation and selection of Ptt isolates based on minor virulence pattern to barley genotypes is essential for successful barley breeding program for resistance to net blotch in Morocco.
. Shin , J. , Ko , K.S. : Comparative study of genotype and virulence in CTX-M-producing and non-extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58 , 2463 – 2467 ( 2014
Desjardins, A.E., Proctor, R.H., Bai, G., McCormick, S.P., Shaner, G., Buechley, G.., Hohn, T.M. 1996. Reduced virulence of trichothecene nonproducing mutants of Gibberella zeae in wheat field tests. Mol