Detailed results are presented in this paper for all analytical quality control samples distributed by the IAEA including
a new animal muscle intercomparison material of very low chromium content, and an attempt is made to draw some conclusions
regarding likely sources of analytical error.
Authors:Yong Chung, Sun Kim, Gwang Sun, Jong Lim, Jong Moon, Kye Lee, Young Kim, Jong Choi, and Ju Lee
The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition
as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements.
Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a
fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical
quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward
the identification of irradiated foods.
Analytical quality control is needed to ascertain the reliability of results from all types of analysis, including activation analysis. Thea priori precision has to be combined with the statistics of counting in order to reach a state of statistical control. The Analysis of Precision is used to verify the absence of unknown sources of variability and to ascertain the absence of systematic biases or calibration errors by analyzing samples or reference materials with accurately known content or actual samples by an independent method.
The proceeding of the IAEA symposium held in 1978 on nuclear activation techniques in the life sciences are reviewed. A total
of 56 papers are reviewed on methodology, analytical quality control, comparisons between neutron activation analysis and
other methods, and applications of activation analysis in biology and medicine (including in-vivo activation analysis) and
in public and environmental health. The materials analysed in the papers are adjusted in connection with the elements determined
and the purposes of the study. Those elements are tabulated together with the analytical methods used for the element determination.
The standard reference materials analysed for the check of the reliability of analysis are also arranged.
Authors:N. Siddique, S. Waheed, M. Daud, A. Rahman, and S. Ahmad
Tuna fish flesh homogenate, IAEA-436, was received under the IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) intercomparison
programme. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe,
Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Sb, Sm, and Zn in this proposed reference material (RM). IAEA-407 (Fish Homogenate) and NIST-SRM-1572
(Citrus Leaves) were used for quality assurance (QA) purposes. Due to the very low levels of most elements in IAEA-436, large
discrepancies were observed between our results for IAEA-436 and data cited by the IAEA.
Mn-nodule is one of the most important deep sea mineral resources to be explored and exploited in the next century. Analytical quality control based on this kind of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) is therefore necessay. In the present work, nearly 30 elements in two Chinese Mn nodule Reference Materials (RMs), GSPN-2 and GSPN-3, were determined using extendedK0-relative comparison NAA technique, developed in our laboratory. The unique features of this work include; (1) high accuracy obtained by the interal validation function of our technique; (2) extensive determinable elements obtained by the hybrid nature of our software and (3) neutron flux self-shielding corrections.
Authors:Yong Chung, Young Chung, Kyung Cho, and Joung Lee
Trace and toxic elements in Certified Reference Material (CRM) made of Korean rice at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science have been analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data intercomparison from the measurement with those of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Induced Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICPS) has been studied. The powdered samples were sterilized at 1.5·106 rad in the bottles using a60Co source after sieving and spiking to specific elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg and then the homogeneity of samples was assessed. Rice flour (SRM 1568a) and standard solutions made by the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) were used to construct the calibration curves for the INAA and the chemical methods, respectively. The uncertainties and concentration of constituent elements were determined and the possibility of their use for analytical quality control was considered.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements
taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis
(NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed
on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable
variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of
adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many
countries were lower than the dietary requirements.
Authors:H. Cho, K. Chun, K. Park, Y. Chung, and H. Kim
In the boron neutron capture therapy, an accurate determination of the boron content in a biological sample is very important.
The boron content was investigated with a standard solution of boron which was administered intraperitoneally with a dose
of 750 mg/kg body weight into mice induced cancer cells and tumors. The boron content for two types of a sample was compared
to the boronophenylalanine for the tumor and the ethylamine derivatives for the induced cancer cell, which were also investigated
for their accumulation rate in each organ such as blood, spleen, liver, kidney and brain. An analytical quality control was
carried out by using certified reference materials such as Peach Leaves, Apple Leaves and Spinach Leaves. The relative error
of the measured values was in good agreement within 2% to the certified values.
Quality assurance (QA) procedures were established to generate reliableresults for a set of trace elements of radiological significance, namely Cs,Sr, Th and U. Special attention was given to design QA procedures by incorporatingboth internal and external analytical quality control (AQC) procedures, sincethe project involved a group of countries working on the same analytical problemunder different conditions. The procedures included (1) use of existing certifiedreference materials (CRMs) to validate analytical methods, (2) generatingreference values in selected CRMs where certified results were not available,(3) preparing a new total diet CRM, (4) adopting the concept of a CentralReference Laboratory (CRL) to harmonize QA efforts, and finally, (5) analysisof 10% of all samples in the project by both the CRL and participant laboratoriesto assess performance of the methods used.