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TEM märkamine ja maine (2004): Emor, May 2004 (in Estonian). Josing, M. (2003): Eesti toidukaup on liiga kallis. Eesti Päevaleht , 10 November

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: 26.07.2017. Estonian Institute for Futures Studies ( 2015 ): Research . http://www.tlu.ee:80/en/research, accessed 05.23.2015. Eurostat ( 2017 ): Europe 2020 Indicators

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&D: an Exploration Using Panel Data for French, Japanese and US Scientific Firms Hannula, J., Tamm, K. (2002): Restructuring and Efficiency in the Estonian Manufacturing Industry

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Lauristin, M. - Vihalemm, P. (1997): Recent Historical Developments in Estonia: Three Stages of Transition (1987-1997). In: Return to the Western World. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus. Return to the Western World

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. Jones , D. C. and Mygind , N. ( 1999 ): The Nature and Determinants of Ownership Changes after Privatization: Evidence from Estonia . Journal of Comparative Economics , 27 : 422 – 441

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. OECD Database: Statistical Compendium. Paris, various issues in electronic version. Statistical Office of Estonia ( Eesti Statistika Aastaraamat): Statistical Yearbook of Estonia . Tallinn, various issues

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This paper aims to present the role of Germany in the global value chains (GVCs) of 10 Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) in 1995–2011. GVCs, being a result of the fragmentation of production processes, have changed the nature of economic globalisation. The study covers five Central European countries (CECs) (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia), the three Baltic States (Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia) as well as Bulgaria and Romania. Germany is chosen because it is the main trading partner of the majority of the CEECs. The illustration of the position of Germany in GVCs of the CEECs is based on trade statistics in value added terms. The research results show that Germany has become an engine of increasing integration of the CECs in the GVCs. The role of Germany as a supplier of inputs to the CECs’ exports (backward linkages) is larger than its role as an exporter of value added originating from the CECs (forward linkages).

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In 1998, the European Union (EU) entered into negotiations with Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia concerning the enlargement of the Union. At the end of 1999, the European Commission decided that six other countries could join the negotiations in 2000 (Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, Malta and Romania), and it was suggested that a decision concerning the date of membership would be taken in 2002 for these applicants fulfilling all the criteria. Many questions still remain on both sides, in particular regarding institutional reform of the EU (Festoc, 1998), and the ability of the Central and Eastern European countries to adopt the “acquis”.

In this article, we shall evaluate the ways in which the Central European countries (Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic — the CECs) have already integrated to the Western European economy, using trade data over the last ten years. First, we show that since the beginning of the transition, a feature of the foreign trade of the CECs has been a strong reorientation from East to West, in particular to Germany, together with a rapid growth in trade between the EU and the CECs. Second, we describe the trade structure, focussed on foreign direct investment as a mean of developing new exports. The third and fourth sections study the development of the specialisations of the CECs and the nature of trade between the CECs and the EU respectively.

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der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften . Tübingen : Mohr Siebeck . Chancellery of the President of the Estonian Republic ( 1999 ): Interview with the President Lennart Meri (in

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. Bohle , D. – Greskovits , B. ( 2012 ): Capitalist Diversity on Europe¡¯s Periphery . Ithaca : Cornell Univeristy Press . Buchen , C. ( 2007 ): Estonia and Slovenia

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