Authors:Hagen Frickmann, Thomas Köller, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Klaus-Peter Ebert, Martin Müller, Werner Wenzel, Renate Gatzer, Ulrich Schotte, Alfred Binder, Romy Skusa, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Christian Rückert, and Bernd Kreikemeyer
(Supplementary material 1).
The spa typing for MRSA suggested clonal identity of two nonnosocomial MRSAstrains from Syrian patient 5 from the Bundeswehr hospital Hamburg (HBG-S5) and Syrian patient 6 from the Bundeswehr hospital Westerstede (WEST-S6) (both t
Authors:Hagen Frickmann, Andreas Hahn, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Denise Dekker, Rebecca Hinz, Volker Micheel, Benedikt Hogan, Jürgen May, and Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy
Direct growth on blood and screening agar for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at a tropical surveillance site was compared with broth enrichment and subsequent growth on selective MRSA agar after international sample transport.
In Madagascar, 1548 swabs from an MRSA surveillance study were assessed for growth on Columbia blood agar enriched with 5% sheep blood and MRSA screening agar at the surveillance site with subsequent cold storage of the samples and shipment to Germany. In Germany, 1541 shipped samples were analyzed by non-selective broth enrichment with subsequent culture on MRSA selective agar.
A total of 28 MRSA isolates were detected. Of these, 20 strains were isolated from direct culture on blood and MRSA screening agars at the surveillance site, 24 MRSA strains were isolated using the broth enrichment method in Germany, and 16 MRSA strains were identified by both approaches.
In spite of the observed die-off of individual strains due to long-term storage and transport, broth enrichment with subsequent screening on MRSA selective agar after international sample shipment led to comparable sensitivity of MRSA detection like streaking on blood and MRSA agar at the tropical surveillance site.
Authors:H. Coutinho, J. Costa, V. Falcão-Silva, J. Siqueira-Júnior, and E. Lima
Some Staphylococcus species are frequently recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of Eugenia jambolanum and Eugenia uniflora against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus — MRSA strain. In this study, the ethanol extracts of Eugenia jambolanum L., Eugenia uniflora L. and chlorpromazine were tested for their antimicrobial activity alone or in combination with aminoglycosides against an MRSA strain using microdilution method. Synergism between both extracts and all aminoglycosides assayed was demonstrated, except E. jambolanum and tobramycin. In the same form, synergism was observed between chlorpromazine and kanamicin, neomycin and tobramicin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. It is therefore suggested that extracts from E. uniflora L. and E. jambolanum L. could be used as a source of plant derived natural products to modify antibiotic activity of aminoglycosides.
Authors:Bosede Titilope Bamigboye, Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe, and Samuel Sunday Taiwo
The use of vancomycin for treatment of serious infections caused by MRSA strains has resulted in emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in clinical settings. Following our previous report of phenotypic VRSA in Nigeria, the current study attempts to determine the genetic basis underlying this resistance. Over a period of 6 months, non-duplicate clinical S. aureus isolates from 73 consecutive patients with infective conditions at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo were tested against a panel of eight selected antibiotics by disk diffusion test. The Epsilom test strip was used to determine vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to amplify nuc, mecA, vanA, and vanB genes. Of 73 isolates, 61 (83.6%) had MIC of ≤2 μg/ml, 11 (15.1%) had 4–8 μg/ml and 1 (1.4%) had 16 μg/ml. The mecA gene was detected in 5 (6.8%) isolates but none contained vanA or vanB genes. Both vancomycin-susceptible and intermediate isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, while the only vancomycin resistant isolate was resistant to all eight antibiotics. The result confirms the occurrence of phenotypic vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) and VRSA infections in Nigeria, but the molecular basis will require further investigation.
reduce the infection rate in soldiers [ 13 ]. Next to military training camps, community-acquired MRSAstrains were also infrequently (9 out of 67 [13.4%] total MRSA cases) observed in patients without identified risk factors in a US military hospital
)) and filled with 30 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) serving as sampling fluid.
Bacterial Strain and Preparation of MRSA Suspension
For our experiments, a MRSAstrain (strain ID: BfR 08S00974, ITU 1179) of the
Authors:Gergely Sámuel Bartha, Gergő Tóth, Péter Horváth, Eszter Kiss, Nóra Papp, and Monika Kerényi
.g., vancomycin for MRSAstrain) were used as a positive control in microdilution, and diluted DMSO solution was used as a negative control ( Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2012 ).
AA I and AA II
Authors:Samuel Füchtbauer, Soraya Mousavi, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for either compound. The lowest MICs of 128 mg/L were determined for capsaicin against Bacillus subtilis and for DHC against Enterococcus faecalis (strain ATCC 29523) [ 20 ]. In another in vitro study, six capsaicin