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The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter system in the brain. Either imbalance in the extreme can result in several mental diseases like schizophrenia, cerebral stroke, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), and anxiety disorders even death. Measurement of GABA in tissue will help to elucidate the metabolic role and diagnostic value. Various analytical techniques are employed to estimate GABA in biological samples but the experimental procedure and tedious techniques are required. The present study demonstrates a simple, feasible, and cost-effective high-performance thinlayer chromatography (HPTLC) method for estimation of GABA in mice brain tissue. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, and detection limit. The precision was done for inter-day, intra-day, instrumental, and reproducibility. Accuracy was checked by recovery study. The results indicate that this method is fast, sensitive, and suitable for quantitative assessment.

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A new, simple, and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantitative analysis of risperidone. Chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 F254 plates with methanol-ethyl acetate 8.0:2.0 (v/v) as mobile phase. Risperidone was quantified by densitometric analysis at 285 nm. The method gave compact bands for the drug (R F 0.34 ± 0.01). Linear regression analysis of calibration data revealed a good linear relationship (r 2 = 0.9996) between response and amount of risperidone in the range 100–600 ng per band. The method was validated for precision, recovery, repeatability, linearity, specificity, and robustness in accordance with ICH guidelines. The minimum detectable amount was 22.44 ng per band and the limit of quantification was 68.01 ng per band. Statistical analysis of the results showed the method enabled precise, accurate, reproducible, and selective analysis of risperidone. The method was successfully used for estimation of the equilibrium solubility of risperidone, and for quantification of risperidone as the bulk drug in a commercially available preparation, in in-house-developed mucoadhesive microemulsion formulations, and in solution.

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A simple, precise, rapid, and accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) compatible reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC-PDA) method has been developed and validated for the estimation of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in bulk and tablet formulations. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Phenomenex C18 column (150 mm · 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm particle size) using the mobile phase comprising methanol-formic acid (0.02% v/v in water) in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1, and OXC was eluted at 6.4 min. Quantification and linearity were achieved at 229 nm over the concentration range of 10–50 μg mL−1, and the mean percentage of assay was found to be 100.03. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, and robustness as per the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and it is suitable to be employed in quality control.

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A sensitive, selective, precise, and robust densitometric method for the analysis of nicotine (drug component of Nicotiana tabacum) in various tobacco products (TPS), including smoked (cigarette and beedi), sniffing (sniffing niswar), dipping (niswar), and chewing (gutka) tobacco brands, was developed and validated as per the ICH guideline. TLC glass plates, precoated with silica gel 60F-254, were used for the analysis. Densitometric analysis of nicotine was carried out in the absorbance mode at 262 nm. The mobile phase consisted of petroleum ether-acetone-diethylamine (7.6:2:0.4) v/v, and gave a sharp and symmetrical nicotine peak (R F = 0.57 ± 0.005) under saturated environment. Linear regression data (LRD) for the calibration curve showed a good linearity with r = 0.997 ± 0.0013. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 3.15 and 9.54 ng per spot, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of nicotine in various TPS.

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According to World Health Organization (WHO) 10% of the medicines in the Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are of poor quality posing a major public health threat. One way to circumvent such problem is the development and deployment of rapid, economical and efficient analytical methods. Hence this research aims to develop a High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method for the determination of doxycycline hyclate. A rapid and simple HPTLC method with densitometry detection at 360 nm to determine doxycycline hyclate in capsules and tablet formulations was developed and validated. HPTLC was performed on glass plates coated with C18 reverse phase silica gel 60 F254 and pretreated with 0.27 M ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA) solution. The mobile phase was dichloromethane: methanol: acetonitrile: 1% aqueous ammonia in the ratio of 10:22:53:15 (v/v). The linearity range lies between 200 and 1,000 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.997. The Rf value is 0.5 ± 0.02%. Recoveries were in the range of 94.50–100.5%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation values for doxycycline hyclate were 40 and 160 ng/spot respectively. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Thus, it was found to be accurate, precise, specific and robust. In forced degradation study, doxycycline hyclate was found to degrade in acidic and alkaline media, and through oxidative stress. The drug was found to be relatively stable to heat and photo degradation. The method was successfully applied for the routine quantitative analysis of dosage forms containing doxycycline hyclate. The developed method offered comparable results (as confirmed by F-test) with that of the HPLC pharmacopoeial (BP) analysis method.

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A reliable and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection method was developed and validated for the quantification of hopantenic acid in human plasma. Hopantenic acid, with protocatechuic acid as the internal standard (IS), was extracted from plasma samples using a liquid-liquid extraction with methanol. A chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna C18 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5-μm particle size) and precolumn of the same sorbent (2.0 mm). An isocratic elution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1, was used with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, water, and 0.03% trifluoroacetic acid. The UV detector was set to 205 nm. The elution times for hopantenic acid and IS were ∼4.3 and 5.4 min, respectively. The calibration curve of hopantenic acid was linear (r > 0.9994) over the range of 0.5–100 μg mL−1 in human plasma. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for hopantenic acid were 0.034 and 0.103 μg mL−1, respectively. The present method was successfully applied for the estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters of hopantenic acid following single oral administration of tablets containing 250 mg hopantenic acid to healthy volunteers. For hopantenic acid, the data showed a mean maximum plasma concentration (C max) of 2.32 μg mL−1, with a time to reach peak plasma concentration (t max) of 1.56 h.

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A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detection has been developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of six active components (syringin, hyperoside, baicalin, quercetin, baicalein, and farrerol) of the Chinese medicinal preparation Qin-Bao-Hong antitussive tablet. The optimum conditions for separation were achieved on a 3.9 mm × 150 mm i.d., 5-μm particle, C18 column with a linear mobile phase gradient prepared from acetonitrile and 1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. Because of the different UV characteristics of these compounds, four detection wavelengths were used for the quantitative analysis (265 nm for syringin, 256 nm for hyperoside and quercetin, 277 nm for baicalin and baicalein, and 296 nm for farrerol). For all the analytes a good linear regression relationship (r > 0.999) was obtained between peak area and concentration over a relatively wide range. The method was validated for repeatability, precision, stability, accuracy, selectivity, and robustness. The validated method was successfully applied to simultaneous analysis of these active components in Qin-Bao-Hong antitussive tablet from different production batches.

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A simple, sensitive, precise, rapid, and reliable HPTLC method for quantitative analysis of artemether and lumefantrine in tablets has been established and validated. The method uses aluminum foil plates precoated with silica gel 60 F 254 as the stationary phase and nhexaneethyl acetate 8:2 ( v/v ) as mobile phase. Bands were scanned at 357 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption. The method is linear ( r 2 > 0.995), precise (RSD < 2%), accurate (average recovery of 100.5% for artemether and 99.5% for lumefantrine), specific, and robust. The artemether content of the tablets varied from 98.50 to 102.45% and that of lumefantrine from 97.80 to 100.64%. The limits of detection and quantification for artemether were 50 and 150 ng per band, respectively, and those for lumefantrine were 300 and 900 ng per band, respectively. The suitability of this HPTLC method for quantitative analysis of artemether and lumefantrine was proved by validation in accordance with the requirements of pharmaceutical regulatory standards. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of a commercial pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible, and accurate and is a more effective option than other chromatographic techniques used for routine quality control.

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Piperine and gallic acid are of different chemical natures — piperine is an alkaloid, while gallic acid a phenolic compound. They are used as marker compounds in many plant-based formulations. A highperformance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC)-densitometric method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of piperine and gallic acid as such and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Toluene-ethyl acetate (3:7) was used as mobile phase and scanning was done at 254 and 340 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, reproducibility, specificity, accuracy, precision, robustness, and ruggedness. Both compounds showed good linearities in the range of 250–1750 ng. LOD and LOQ for piperine were 9.98 and 33.29 ng, while for gallic acid 25 and 83.33 ng. Average % RSD values of precision for piperine and gallic acid were 0.46% and 0.72%, respectively. % Recovery was 96–103%. The method is accurate, reproducible, cost-effective, and can be used in routine analysis.

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