The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for homogeneity tests and certification analyses of coal fly ash reference materials ENO, ECH, and EOP prepared at the Institute of Radioecology and Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Koice, Czechoslovakia. Quantitative estimation of a degree of inhomogeneity was suggested. The relative standard deviations due to inhomogeneity were found to be <1% for macroconstituents and <3% for minor and trace elements for sample weights about 25 mg. The results of determination of the elements Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W, and Zn were compared with the IRANT certified or information values. NBS SRM 1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash was also analyzed as a control sample and the results for the above elements were compared with the NBS certified, information or literature available values. From these comparisons, inference was made on the quality of the IRANT specified values for the element contents.
Authors:Terezinha de Carvalho, Denise Fungaro, Carina Magdalena, and Patricia Cunico
Coal fly ash, a waste generated at the Figueira coal-fired electric power plant located in Brazil, was used to synthesize
zeolite by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution at 100 °C for 24 h. The fly ash (FA) and this synthesized zeolite (ZM)
that was characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite were used as adsorbents for anionic dye indigo carmine from aqueous
solutions. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for the determination of As, Co, Fe,
La, Mo, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, U and Zn. Effects of contact time and initial dye concentration were evaluated in the adsorption
processes. The kinetics studies indicated that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetics and that surface adsorption
and intraparticle diffusion were involved in the adsorption mechanism for both the adsorbents. The Langmuir isotherm model
provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 1.48 mg L−1 for FA and 1.23 mg L−1 for ZM. Laboratory leaching and solubilization tests conducted to classify this ZM as if was a waste residue according to
the Brazilian regulation classified it as a residue non-hazardous and non-inert.
The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for homogeneity tests and certification analyses of the coal fly ash reference material ECO prepared at the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Koice, Czechoslovakia. The relative standard deviations due to inhomogeneity were found to be <3% for 19 elements including for sample weights about 50 mg. The results of determination of the elements Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W, and Zn, were compared with the IRANT certified or information values. Inference was made on the reliability of the IRANT specified values for the element contents.
A simple and rapid laser fluorometric determination of trace and ultra trace level of uranium in a wide variety of low uranium
content materials like soil, basic and ultra basic rocks, plant ash, coal fly ash and red mud samples is described. Interference
studies of some common major, minor and trace elements likely to be present in different, geological materials on uranium
fluorescence are studied using different fluorescence enhancing reagents like sodium pyrophosphate, orthophosphoric acid,
penta sodium tri-polyphosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate. The accurate determination of very low uranium content samples
which are rich in iron, manganese and calcium, is possible only after the selective separation of uranium. Conditions suitable
for the quantitative single step extraction of 25 ng to 20 μg uranium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and single step quantitative
stripping with dilute neutral sodium pyrophosphate, which also acts as fluorescence enhancing reagent is studied. The aqueous
strip is used for the direct laser fluorometric measurement without any further pretreatment. The procedure is applied for
the determination of uranium in soil, basalt, plant ash, coal fly ash and red mud samples. The accuracy of the proposed method
is checked by analyzing certain standard reference materials as well as synthetic sample with known quantity of uranium. The
accuracy and reproducibility of the method are fairly good with RSD ranging from 3 to 5% depend upon the concentration of
Authors:Dmitar Zorić, Dušan Lazar, Ognjen Rudić, Miroslava Radeka, Jonjaua Ranogajec, and Helena Hiršenberger
The article presents the results of physical and chemical properties of lightweight aggregates (LWA) obtained by the thermal treatments of raw composition based on fly ash, supplied by electric plants from Serbia. The production process of LWA consists of raw material preparation, plastic shaping–extrusion, granulation, and thermal treatment at three temperatures: 1100, 1150, and 1200 °C. The final firing temperature (T = 1150 °C) is chosen based on the mechanical and physical properties of the designed aggregates. The particle-size distribution of the LWAs is unimodal (d ≈ 16 mm) while the density value varies from 0.98 to 1.99 g/cm3. The water absorption values are determined by use of two methods: 24 h of soaking in cold water and 5 h of boiling. The thermal conductivity of unbound, fired LWA particles is determined by measuring the amount of axially transferred heat in the stationary state. The obtained value of the LWA thermal conductivity (λ = 0.0872 W/mK, T = 1150 °C) is suitable for the production of structural concrete blocks with improved thermal insulating properties. Because of their high-porosity and -compressive strength values, the designed LWA could be used instead of the conventional aggregates in the production of concrete blocks. Consequently, a real valorization of the waste material such as fly ash in Serbia was established.
The thermal decomposition behavior of hard coal fly ash (HCA2), obtained from the combustion of an Australian hard coal in
thermoelectric power plants, in different atmospheres (air, N2 and N2-H2 mixture), was studied using thermogravimetry (TG), infrared-evolved gas analysis (IR-EGA), differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) and thermodilatometry (DIL) techniques. It was found that changing of the applied atmosphere affects the carbon content
of the ash which results in different thermal decomposition behaviors. In air, the carbon content was oxidized to carbon dioxide
before the decomposition of carbonate. In N2 or in N2-H2 atmospheres, the carbon content acts as a spacer causing a fewer points of contact between calcium carbonate particles, thus
increasing the interface area which results in a decrease of the carbonate decomposition temperature. Following the carbonate
decomposition, the iron oxide content of the ash undergoes a reductive decomposition reaction with the unburned carbon. This
oxidation-reduction reaction was found to be fast and go to completion in presence of the N2-H2 mixture than in the pure nitrogen atmosphere due to the reducing effect of the hydrogen.
The kinetics of the carbonate decomposition step, in air and N2-H2 mixture was performed under non-isothermal conditions using different integral methods of analysis. The dynamic TG curves
obeyed the Avrami-Erofeev equation (A2) in air, and phase boundary controlled reaction equation (R2) in N2-H2 mixture. The change in the reaction mechanism and the difference in the calculated values of activation parameters with the
change of the atmosphere were discussed in view of effect of the atmosphere on the carbon content of the ash.
Authors:Masamichi Tsukada, Daijiro Yamamoto, Kazutoyo Endo, and Hiromichi Nakahara
Previously, the use of an enriched stable isotope as an activatable yield tracer in preconcentration steps has been tested by use of commercially available enriched116Cd and156Dy for biological standard reference materials.1,2 In the present work, this method has been further applied to the determination of lanthanoid contents in various kinds of samples: one coal fly-ash, three Japanese standard rocks, and eight standard soils. Samples were decomposed by alkali fusion in the preconcentration step. Thirteen elements were determined for coal fly-ash and soil samples, and 14 elements for rocks. The data obtained for coal fly-ash and standard rocks are compared with the data reported in literature. The data for soil samples have been newly determined in the present work. The ordinary instrumental neutron activation analysis and radiochemical neutron activation analysis were also performed to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of the present method.
A procedure is described for the determination of thallium in coal fly ash by fast neutron activation analysis using the reaction203Tl/n, 2n/202Tl. A 31 h reactor irradiatioon under cadmium cover at a fast neutron flux of 3.05×1012 n.cm–2.s–1 is applied. The simple radiochemical separation involves a wet attack in acids followed by an extraction of Tl/III/into diisopropylether from 0.5M HBr. The radiochemical purity is sufficient for immediate -spectrometry. A value of 5.7±0.7 ppm is found in the NBS 1633a coal fly ash.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied for the simultaneous determination of up to 33 elements including major, minor and trace elements in the environmental reference materials soil and coal fly ash from China. The procedure involves both short and long irradiations followed by the measurement of the gamma spectra with a Ge(Li) detector. The analytical results are presented and discussed.