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420 Móricz, Á., Otta, K. H., Ott, P. G., Tyihák, E. (2004) New horizon in the characterization of the action of mycotoxins separated by TLC or OPLC. In: Sz. Nyiredy (ed.) Proc. Intern. Symp. on Planar

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Berardo, N., Pisacane, V., Battilani, P., Scandolara, A., Pietri, A., Marocco, A. 2005. Rapid detection of kernel rots and mycotoxins in maize by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J. Agricul. and Food Chem

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Forage plants may become contaminated by mycotoxins already on the cropland as a result of mould infection, the degree of which can be diminished by the use of appropriate agrotechnical methods or resistant plant cultivars. During storage, the main goal is to prevent further mould infection and mycotoxin contamination. In that period, the moisture content of feedstuffs and the mould contamination of storage spaces, which can be minimised by the use of fungicidal products, are the most critical factors. Feed manufacturing processes do not substantially decrease the mycotoxin content of feedstuffs, and the efficiency of the recommended chemical and/or heat treatment procedures is also questionable as they are expensive and may reduce the nutrient content. To minimise the adverse effects of mycotoxins on animals, the use of products capable of binding and biologically transforming mycotoxins is also recommended; however, such products have varying efficacy.

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals is one of the most important pre-harvest diseases worldwide. One possible method to reduce the intensity of FHB and mycotoxin levels is to apply fungicides to wheat at the flowering stage. This paper reports the efficacy of fungicides to control FHB and reduce the associated mycotoxin biosynthesis. In a two-year experiment eight combinations of fungicides were tested. Ear inoculation with a suspension of conidia of Fusarium culmorum representing the DON chemotype, confirmed by PCR assay, was conducted during anthesis. All fungicides significantly reduced FHB severity. The best control and the highest wheat yield were obtained after the application of spiroxamine + prothioconazole at GS 29-32, combined with prothioconazole + fluoxastrobin at GS 49-55 (yield 166.5% of the control) or tebuconazole and prothioconazole (165.8%). All the other protection programs resulted in higher yields (117.1–138.5% of the control). A clear relation was observed between the disease intensity and mycotoxin concentrations.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: K. Gromadzka, M. Wit, K. Górna, J. Chełkowski, A. Waśkiewicz, P. Ochodzki, and R. Warzecha

. Bezuidenhout , S.C. , Gelderblom , W.C.A. , Gorst-Allman , C.P. , Horak , R.M. , Marasas , W.F.O. , Spiteller , G. , Vleggaar , R. 1988 . Structure elucidation of the fumonisins, mycotoxins from Fusarium moniliforme . J. Chem. Soc

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Champeil, A., Fourbet, J.F., Doré, T., Rossignol, L. 2004. Influence of cropping system on Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin levels in winter wheat. Crop Protection 23 :531–537. Rossignol L

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Gavrilova, O., Gagkaeva, T., Burkin, A., Kononenko, G., Loskutov, I. 2008. Susceptibility of aot germplasm to Fusarium infection and mycotoxin accumulation in grains. Abstract V-*, Eighth International Oat Conference Minneapolis June 28–July 2. 2008

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. K.F. Nielsen , Mold Growth on Building Materials. Secondary Metabolites, Mycotoxins and Biomarkers. Ph.D. Thesis. BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, 2002. A.P. Verhoeff, J.H. van

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Branislav Kureljušić, Božidar Savić, Vesna Milićević, Nemanja Jezdimirović, Oliver Radanović, Jadranka Žutić, and Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

feeding factors, such as the use of dry feed, magnesium and copper deficiencies, and increased mycotoxin concentrations, has already been discussed ( Torrison and Cameron, 2019 ). In the year 2019, we observed a severe case of PENS during one of our farm

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Fungal toxins are secondary metabolites, in which many of them were mycotoxins, affecting eukaryotic cells with a broad range of structural and functional variety contributing to the multitude of their classification. This refers to the harmful genotoxic (mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic) effects of mycotoxins on the one hand, and their cytocidic and antineoplastic properties on the other hand. This “double edged sword” effect could be utilized against the spread of tumors in older patients when the survival is much more important than the mutagenic side effects. To decide which fungal toxins could be used as combined cytotoxic and antimetastatic agents, mycotoxins were divided into three categories: (a) highly genotoxic (mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic), (b) adversely toxic, and (c) antitumorigenic agents. Highly cytotoxic mycotoxins with tolerable side effects, combined with an antineoplastic character, could be potential candidates against metastasis. From the structure–function relationship of antimetastatic mycotoxins, only general conclusions have been drawn. The presence of ring structures containing heteroatoms, functional groups, and the cumulative presence of oxygen atoms contributed to the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity of mycotoxins. The preselection of mycotoxins excluded category (a), and only the categories (b) and (c) were considered to be potential agents against the metastatic spread of abdominal tumors in rodent metastatic tumor experiments.

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