Introduction The detection of fungal infections is of great importance in food science since one of the most serious problems of food safety is the presence of mycotoxins produced by microscopic fungi. Molds can grow on many kinds of substrates
A brief report on the food pollutant-mycotoxin, citrinin, is presented. Radioactive14C-citrinin was isolated from Aspergillus candidus grown culture supplemented with14C-glucose. Quick uptake of14C-citrinin was observed in the liver and kidney of mice, after the administration of a single dose. In vitro studies with14C-citrinin reveal that it gets bound to the albumin fraction of human serum.
produces secondary metabolites which have important roles in self-defense processes, in plant biochemistry, and in allelochemistry. By performing experiments to determine how irregular stress effects changed the alkaloid content of poppies we have shown that different types of stress affect the quantities of alkaloids.
(cv. ‘Kék Duna’, Budakalász, Hungary) plants were grown for 2 months, from seeds, in quartz-sand (natural light, temperature 24–28°C, in
’s nutritive solution). In this work we studied alkaloids in poppies subjected to two kinds of stress — mycotoxin and drought. Amounts of alkaloids were measured by different separation and detection procedures — thin-layer chromatography (TLC and HPTLC) with fluorescence detection, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC proved superior for identification and approximate estimation of the morphine alkaloids, but the effects of stress on poppy plants can be detected by use of either method. Drought stress resulted in higher levels of the alkaloids whereas mycotoxin stress did not result in significant differences.
Thin-layer chromatography is a rapid and reliable working method for quantification of mycotoxins which is suitable for checking EC legislation aflatoxin limits for dried figs without an RP-18 pre-column cleaning step. We describe normal-phase chromatography on silica gel plates with 2.4:0.05:0.1:0.05 (
-butyl ether-water-methanol-cyclohexane as mobile phase and reversed-phase chromatography on RP-18 plates with methanol-4% aqueous ZnSO
solution-ethyl methyl ketone 15:15:3 (
) as mobile phase. Sample pretreatment was by modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) extraction with tetrahydrofuran or acetone. NaCl was used as QuEChERS salt. Response was a linear function of amount chromatographed in the ranges 3 to 100 pg per zone for aflatoxins B
, 10 to 350 pg per zone for the aflatoxins B
, and 0.25 to 2.5 ng per zone for ochratoxin A. Quantification limits for the aflatoxins were between 13 and 35 pg per zone (equivalent to 1.5 and 2.4 ppb, taking the pre-treatment procedure into account). Ochratoxin A was detectable with a limit of quantification of 970 pg per zone, corresponding to 56 ppb in the sample. Normal phase and RP-18 separations work rapidly, reliably, and at low cost. They are also suitable for checking the content of the mycotoxins patulin, penicillic acid, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization), Ochratoxin A. In: Safety evaluations of specific mycotoxins. Prepared by the fifty-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
References  A . Bottalico , A . Logrieco , and A . Visconti , in: J . Chelkowski (Ed.), Fusarium Mycotoxins, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity , Elsevier , Amsterdam , 1989 .  W. C. A . Gelderblom , E . Semple , W. F. O . Marasas