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This study was to determine the gene expression pattern and phenotypic change of Cheongcheong, Nagdong, TN1, and 8 different pedigrees of the CNDH population when WBPH infestation initiated at the reproductive stage of the crop. WBPH infested plants generally showed higher expression level of defense genes compared with the uninfected plants. LOX transcriptional levels in Nagdong and CNDH42-1 did not increase after WBPH feeding at all-time course. Chlorophyll content declined in infested plants compared to their controls, but still CNDH3, CNDH14-2, and CNDH65 were healthier. Heavy and extensive WBPH feeding affected rice yield and grain quality although the infestation started at the reproductive stage.

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commercial soy products are limited ( Hernández-Ledesma et al., 2009 ). In the present investigation, 2 soybean varieties of India were assessed for BBI concentration at different reproductive stages to investigate the dynamics of BBI accumulation. Mature

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Summary

Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) occupies a prominent position in the ethnotherapeutics practices. The herb is known to contain a number of bioactive metabolites, which have immense therapeutic value. The objective of our present investigation was to estimate the variation of metabolites in different parts and phonological stages of A. lappa. This investigation has been done using a high-performance thin-layer chromatography technique. The present analysis reveals that the root (vegetative stages) holds the significantly high content of triterpenoids (betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, and lupeol), in comparison to the reproductive stage.

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Drought stress frequently occurs in the reproductive stage of wheat, causing significant yield loss. To study the developmental stage dependency of the effect of drought stress on photosynthesis, plants of the drought-tolerant Plainsman V and sensitive Cappelle Desprez winter wheat varieties were grown in phytotron chambers and subjected to water withholding during three phenophases of reproductive development: meiosis, anthesis and early seed development (ESD).Stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (Anet) showed similar characteristics. Meiotic-stage drought only decreased the values of Cappelle Desprez significantly. Stressed Plainsman V showed a significantly smaller reduction and better regeneration for these parameters at anthesis. The decreases in gs and Anet were similar in both varieties when drought was applied during ESD. Studies on the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) inflexion point implied that metabolic impairment was less typical of stressed Plainsman V than of Cappelle Desprez at meiosis and anthesis. The quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) did not decline in either genotype during meiotic-stage drought. Stressed Plainsman V showed significantly higher ΦPSII values compared to Cappelle Desprez at anthesis. During ESD, the values for stressed plants of both genotypes decreased to a similar extent.The results indicate that the effect of drought stress on photosynthesis shows developmental stage dependency during the reproductive life cycle of wheat.

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Spring radiation frost is a serious problem in Australia particularly at the reproductive stage, causing an annual revenue loss of more than AU$ 360 million. The focus of frost research therefore has been to identify reproductively frost resistant cereals at the both varietal and species levels that can contribute to alleviating frost damage. Seven triticale and three wheat varieties were assessed to determine relative frost tolerance under natural frost conditions. Plants were grown in pots and raised in the glasshouse. At flowering (±5 days), plants were exposed to a single overnight frost or frost maintained for a short time with varying intensities from 0.2 to –6.6 °C at crop ear height. The frost impact was assessed at maturity based on ear fertility by counting the number of developed grains. There were variable levels of tolerance between triticale varieties with Tahara being more susceptible than other varieties. At species level, triticale was more susceptible than wheat. Temperatures below –3.9 °C were economically damaging. A holistic approach of breeding and agronomic management may be needed to mitigate the frost problem in winter cereals.

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-anthesis anther sink strength for maintenance of grain number during reproductive stage water stress in wheat. Plant. Cell. Environ. , 33 , 926–942. Dolferus R. Importance of pre

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., Kumar, A., Ramaiah V., Spane, D., Atlin, G. 2007. Alarge effect QTL for grain yield under reproductive stage drought stress in upland rice. Crop Sci. 47 :507–516. Atlin G. Alarge

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., Lewis, D. C., Jenkins, C. L. D., Condon, A. G., Richards, R. A., Dolferus, R. (2010): Importance of pre-anthesis anther sink strength for maintenance of grain number during reproductive stage water stress in wheat. Plant Cell Environ. , 33 , 926

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) Pretreatment reproductive stage and oocyte development induced by salmon pituarity homogenate in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Fisheries Sci. 64 , 531-537. Pretreatment reproductive stage and oocyte development induced by salmon

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1189 1202 Sah, S.K., Zamora, O.B. 2005. Effect of water deficit at vegetative and reproductive stages of hybrid, open pollinated variety and local maize ( Zea mays L.). J. of

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