Authors:JianHua Zhang, Ling Wang, Xi Zhu, Xue Bai, and Hua Yin
You-Gui-Yin (YGY), a famous traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in clinics for the treatment of kidney-yang deficiency, yang deficiency caused by excessive yin, and osteoporosis. A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (UPLC–ESI–MS) method for simultaneous determination of six Aconitum alkaloids including aconitine (AC), hypaconitine (HA), mesaconitine (MA), benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylhypaconine (BHA), and benzoylmesaconine (BMA) in rat plasma after oral administration of YGY was developed in this study. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of 2 mmol/L ammonium formate in 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution and 0.05% formic acid methanol solution, at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min. MS detection was performed in the positive ion mode. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.04160–41.60 ng/mL, 0.1070–107.0 ng/mL, 0.07358–73.50 ng/mL, 0.03228–32.28 ng/mL, 0.01809–18.09 ng/mL, and 0.1320–132.0 ng/mL for AC, HA, MA, BAC, BHA, and BMA, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD]) were less than 11.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The accuracies Relative Error (RE) ranged from −10.2% to 5.6%, while the recoveries ranged from 70.4% to 99.3%. The method for simultaneous quantitation of Aconitum alkaloids of You-Gui-Yin in rat plasma is accurate and repeatable, and this method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of YGY. For the pharmacokinetic study, the pharmacokinetics of the six Aconitum alkaloids were best described by a two-compartment open model.
Authors:Xiang-Ling Hou, Hai-Zhen Wang, Tian-Qiang Hu, Douglas A. Gentile, James Gaskin, and Jin-Liang Wang
Background and aims
Perceived stress has been regarded as a risk factor for problematic social networking site (SNS) use, yet little is known about the underlying processes whereby confounding variables may mediate or moderate this relationship. To answer this question, this study examined whether depression and anxiety mediated the relationship between perceived stress and problematic SNS use, and whether these mediating processes were moderated by psychological resilience and social support.
Participants were 641 Chinese college students who completed anonymous questionnaires measuring perceived stress, depression/anxiety, psychological resilience, social support, and problematic SNS use.
The results showed that (a) depression/anxiety mediated the relationship between perceived stress and problematic SNS use; (b) the mediating effects of depression/anxiety on the association between perceived stress and problematic SNS use were moderated by psychological resilience. Specifically, the mediating effects of depression/anxiety were stronger for individuals with lower levels of psychological resilience, compared with those with higher levels of psychological resilience; and (c) the mediating effects of depression/anxiety were not moderated by social support, although social support was negatively related to depression/anxiety.
Discussion and conclusion
This study can contribute to a better understanding of how and when perceived stress increases the risk of problematic SNS use, and implies the importance of enhancing psychological resilience in preventing problematic SNS use.
Authors:Jianwei Han, Wenbo Zhu, Ling Yu, Yajun Chen, Gaosong Wu, and Zhibin Wang
A rapid, sensitive and convenient method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CCSG), ononin, calycosin, (6aR,11aR)-9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan-3-O-β-d-glucopyanoside (DPPG), and 7,2′-dihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxyisoflavan-7-O-β-d-glucopyanoside (DIFG) in rat plasma after oral administration of the methanol extraction from Radix Astragali. Theophylline played the role of internal standard (IS). Preparation of plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction method with ethyl acetate after precipitation of protein with methanol. The analytes were detected with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometery (MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and a positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI). The method was validated with the concentration ranges of 1.96–62.69 ng/mL for CCSG, 1.70–54.5 ng/mL for ononin, 1.85–59.06 ng/mL for calycosin, 2.14–137.24 ng/mL for DPPG and1.96–125.25 ng/mL for DIFG, respectively. The method had the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) with 0.49, 0.21, 0.92, 1.07, and 0.98 ng/mL for CCSG, ononin, calycosin, DPPG and DIFG respectively, and the precision less than 10%. The RSD of the accuracy was in the range of −4.35–8.91%. The results may be helpful to provide more accurate references to clinical application of this herb.
Authors:Genquan Yan, Lu Yu, Xu Chen, Triet Tran, Lam Nguyen, Zhijun Wang, and Ling Wang
A rapid and sensitive High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for determining apremilast in beagle dog plasma and urine samples was developed and validated using clopidogrel as the internal standard (IS). Apremilast was extracted from the plasma and urine samples by liquid–liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed using a C8 column with gradient elution and a mobile phase containing methanol and 0.1% formic acid. Quantification was achieved in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with a transition of m/z 461.3→178.2 for apremilast and m/z 322.2→184.1 for clopidogrel (IS). This method was validated regarding its specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for this method was 5 ng/mL, and the calibration curve was linear over 5–1,000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-run coefficients of variance (CV) of aprelimast in plasma samples were less than 12.92% and 10.64%, respectively, while in urine samples, the CV were less than 11.84% and 10.20%, respectively. The samples were stable under the tested conditions. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs following oral administration of 10 mg of apremilast.
Authors:Lu Li, Dan-Dan Xu, Jing-Xin Chai, Di Wang, Lin Li, Ling Zhang, Li Lu, Chee H. Ng, Gabor S. Ungvari, Song-Li Mei, and Yu-Tao Xiang
Background and aims
Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is common in university students. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of IAD in Chinese university students, but the results have been inconsistent. This is a meta-analysis of the prevalence of IAD and its associated factors in Chinese university students.
Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase) and Chinese (Wan Fang Database and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases were systematically and independently searched from their inception until January 16, 2017.
Altogether 70 studies covering 122,454 university students were included in the meta-analysis. Using the random-effects model, the pooled overall prevalence of IAD was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.1%–12.5%). When using the 8-item Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 10-item modified Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 20-item Internet Addiction Test, and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the pooled prevalence of IAD was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.7%–10.4%), 9.3% (95% CI: 7.6%–11.4%), 11.2% (95% CI: 8.8%–14.3%), and 14.0% (95% CI: 10.6%–18.4%), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled prevalence of IAD was significantly associated with the measurement instrument (Q = 9.41, p = .024). Male gender, higher grade, and urban abode were also significantly associated with IAD. The prevalence of IAD was also higher in eastern and central of China than in its northern and western regions (10.7% vs. 8.1%, Q = 4.90, p = .027).
IAD is common among Chinese university students. Appropriate strategies for the prevention and treatment of IAD in this population need greater attention.
Authors:Shan-Shan Ma, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Jian-song Xu, Sarah W. Yip, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Ling-Jiao Wang, Ben Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Sheng Zhang, and Xiao-Yi Fang
Cue-induced brain reactivity has been suggested to be a fundamental and important mechanism explaining the development, maintenance, and relapse of addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Altered activity in addiction-related brain regions has been found during cue-reactivity in IGD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but less is known regarding the alterations of coordinated whole brain activity patterns in IGD.
To investigate the activity of temporally coherent, large-scale functional brain networks (FNs) during cue-reactivity in IGD, independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data from 29 male subjects with IGD and 23 matched healthy controls (HC) performing a cue-reactivity task involving Internet gaming stimuli (i.e., game cues) and general Internet surfing-related stimuli (i.e., control cues).
Four FNs were identified that were related to the response to game cues relative to control cues and that showed altered engagement/disengagement in IGD compared with HC. These FNs included temporo-occipital and temporo-insula networks associated with sensory processing, a frontoparietal network involved in memory and executive functioning, and a dorsal-limbic network implicated in reward and motivation processing. Within IGD, game versus control engagement of the temporo-occipital and frontoparietal networks were positively correlated with IGD severity. Similarly, disengagement of temporo-insula network was negatively correlated with higher game-craving.
These findings are consistent with altered cue-reactivity brain regions reported in substance-related addictions, providing evidence that IGD may represent a type of addiction. The identification of the networks might shed light on the mechanisms of the cue-induced craving and addictive Internet gaming behaviors.