Authors:L. Hajas, K. A. Scherf, Zs. Bugyi, K. Török, E. Schall, P. Köhler, and S. Tömösközi
In special dietary products for people intolerant to gluten, gluten content is not supposed to exceed the regulatory thresholds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are routinely used to quantitate gluten in these products. They measure gliadin/gluten with high specificity and sensitivity, but they have some limitations. Quantitative and qualitative variability of the target proteins among wheat cultivars is a factor that may cause inaccurate results. One of the aims of this work was to characterize the protein composition of five wheat cultivars grown in multiple harvest years and their blends by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The gliadin/gluten content of these wheat flours was also analysed with two commercial ELISA kits. The effect of differences in protein profiles between the flours from an individual cultivar and the blend of five cultivars, harvest years, as well as processing procedures (dough forming and baking) on the results of two ELISA kits was investigated and their relative magnitude was determined. Among the factors investigated, the differences between flours had the greatest impact on gliadin recoveries.
Authors:Zs. Sári, T. Kovács, T. Csonka, M. Török, É. Sebő, J. Toth, D. Tóth, E. Mikó, B. Kiss, D. Szeőcs, K. Uray, Zs. Karányi, I. Kovács, G. Méhes, P. Árkosy, and P. Bai
Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.