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Researchers are only just beginning to understand the neurocognitive drivers of addiction-like eating behaviours, a highly distressing and relatively common condition. Two constructs have been consistently linked to addiction-like eating: distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility. Despite a large body of addiction research showing that impulsivity-related traits can interact with other risk markers to result in an especially heightened risk for addictive behaviours, no study to date has examined how distress-driven impulsivity interacts with cognitive inflexibility in relation to addiction-like eating behaviours. The current study examines the interactive contribution of distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility to addiction-like eating behaviours.


One hundred and thirty-one participants [mean age 21 years (SD = 2.3), 61.8% female] completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, the S-UPPS-P impulsivity scale, and a cognitive flexibility task. A bootstrap method was used to examine the associations between distress-driven impulsivity, cognitive inflexibility, and their interaction with addiction-like eating behaviours.


There was a significant interaction effect between distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive flexibility (P = 0.03). The follow-up test revealed that higher distress-driven impulsivity was associated with more addiction-like eating behaviours among participants classified as cognitively inflexible only.


The current findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying addiction-like eating behaviours, including how traits and cognition might interact to drive them. The findings also suggest that interventions that directly address distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility might be effective in reducing risk for addiction-like eating and related disorders.

Open access

An accurate and rapid liquid chromatography–electrospray ionizaion– tandem mass spectrometry (LC—ESI—MS/MS) analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of antcins A, B, C, H, and K, dehydroeburicoic acid, and 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole in the extract and capsule of Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) fruiting body. These seven signature compounds were ionized using an electrospray ion source and analyzed by a triple-quadrupole mass analyzer under a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The MRM transitions of m/z 453/409 (antcin A), m/z 467/408 (antcin B), m/z 469/425 (antcin C), m/z 485/413 (antcin H), m/z 487/407 (antcin K), m/z 467/337 (dehydroeburicoic acid), and m/z 197/139 (4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole) were used to quantify these seven components, respectively. Their calibration curves presented good linear regressions (R 2 > 0.997) within the tested concentration range. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 1.97% and 2.53%, respectively. The overall recovery was in the range of 87.55%–95.41%. This validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)—MS/MS method offers promising applications for the accurate and rapid quantification of signature compounds in the fruiting body and its commercial products.

Open access